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Flashcards in Anthropology Lecture 5 Deck (29):
1

wrote about unilineal evolution

Lewis Henry Morgan

2

three eras of unilineal evolution

savage, barbarian (domestication), and civilization

3

believed conflict between bourgeoisie and proletariat caused social change in the Industrial Revolution

Marx

4

believed capitalism led to technological innovations in the Industrial Revolution

Marx

5

distinguished gemeinschaft and gesselschaft

Tonnies

6

gemeinschaft

community

7

gesselschaft

society

8

wrote about collective conscience

Durkheim

9

mechanical solidarity, and its theorist

close-knit and smaller, less division of labor, religious; Durkheim

10

organic solidarity, and its theorist

less close-knit and larger, greater division of labor; Durkheim

11

did Durkheim believe organic or mechanical solidarity superior

organic

12

didn't think cultures could evolve in only one way

Steward

13

White

believed cultural evolution was unilineal, formulated a general evolutionary theory for culture, and believed technology helps one harness energy and adapt to nature

14

cultural base, and its coiner

existing inventions, White

15

opposite of technological determinism, according to who

social constructivism, Volti

16

material and nonmaterial culture and cultural lag

Ogburn

17

adaptive culture

adjusts to material innovations; lack results in cultural lag

18

convergence theory

cultures becoming similar

19

why can't the average person control technology today

expertise or managerial status required

20

author of McDonaldization

Ritzer

21

extends Weber's rationalization

McDonaldization

22

diffusion helps

nations develop technologically

23

happened in Nazi Germany

brain drain

24

adopting a foreign technology requires the right supporting

infrastructure, including workforce, capital for development, supporting technologies, and key resources

25

problems with adoption of foreign technologies

technologies remove labor, contribute to inequality, consume resources, may fail in new setting, may fail due to lack of capital

26

appropriate technologies

boost production, increase employment, help wealth distribution, empower people, help economic independence, preserve environment, and can be built and serviced with local materials and knowledge

27

appropriate technology also known as

intermediate technology

28

issues that can hinder adoption of appropriate technology

lack of funding and government issues

29

Mesthene's three one-dimensional views about technology and society

as motor of all progress; as curse; as uninteresting because it's been studied since industrial revolution