Flashcards in Anti Convulsants Deck (21):
rapid synchronous and uncontrolled spread of electrical actiivy
What are the 4 stages of a seizure?
behavioral changes days before the seizure
conscious warning telling something is coming
behavior changes, dazed and confused after event
What is epilepsy?
recurrent unprovoked seizures
What are the 3 classifications of Epilepsy
in one brain region, no spread, seen only on EEG
focal limited spread and observed clinically, structural lesions in the forebrain might be a contributing factor
What are the two types of partial seizures? what is the difference?
simple partial- no alteration in consciousness, seizure located in motor area of the cerebral hemisphere
complex partial- psychomotor epilepsy; altered consciousness, repetitive behavior, think temporal lobe
most common form in domestic animals
abrupt loss of consciousness, aka grand mal seizure
What is the neurobiology of a seizure?
synchronous neural discharges of a particular population of neurons
imbalances in inhibitory/excitatory neurotransmission
symptoms dependent on brain region affected
extracellular calcium necessary for the initiation and spread of seizures
What is "Ictal"
EEG descriptor that that refers to seizure-like; interictal is between seizures
What are the general therapeutic strategies available for seizure management?
inhibit voltage gated Na/Cl channels
enhance GABAnergic channels
blockade of excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmitters
What are the 4 anti-seizure agents we covered?
what is the action/adverse effects of using benzodiazepines as anti-seizure meds?
action: targets GABA receptor, results in hyperpolarization
adverse effects: addictive, hepatotoxic. sedation, not suitable fopr chronic treatment
Diazepam: uselul in stopping cluster seizures,
what is the action/adverse effects of using potassium bromide as anti-seizure meds?
action: hyperpolarizes membrane through Br- competing with CL- (forces more Cl- into cell would be my guess
adverse effects: sedation/ataxia main limiting factors
what is the action/adverse effects of using barbiturates as anti-seizure meds?
action: raises the seizure threshold
adverse effects: sedation, ataxia, PU/PD, polyphagia, weight gain, hepatoxic in dogs
plasma monitoring necessary to make sure w/in therapeutic range
what is the action/adverse effects of using carbamazepine/phenytoin as anti-seizure meds?
action: target inactivation gate of Na channel to keep it open longer-> cannot repolarize, stabilization of neuronal mebrane and decreased excitability