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Flashcards in Anti Convulsants Deck (21):
1

Define seizure:

rapid synchronous and uncontrolled spread of electrical actiivy

2

What are the 4 stages of a seizure?

Prodrome
Aura
Ictus
Post-ictal phase

3

Prodrome

behavioral changes days before the seizure

4

Aura

conscious warning telling something is coming

5

Ictus

seizure event

6

Post-ictal ohase

behavior changes, dazed and confused after event

7

What is epilepsy?

recurrent unprovoked seizures

8

What are the 3 classifications of Epilepsy

focal
partial
generalized

9

Focal seizure

in one brain region, no spread, seen only on EEG

10

Partial seizure

focal limited spread and observed clinically, structural lesions in the forebrain might be a contributing factor

11

What are the two types of partial seizures? what is the difference?

simple partial- no alteration in consciousness, seizure located in motor area of the cerebral hemisphere

complex partial- psychomotor epilepsy; altered consciousness, repetitive behavior, think temporal lobe

12

Generalized seizure

most common form in domestic animals
abrupt loss of consciousness, aka grand mal seizure

13

What is the neurobiology of a seizure?

synchronous neural discharges of a particular population of neurons

imbalances in inhibitory/excitatory neurotransmission

symptoms dependent on brain region affected

extracellular calcium necessary for the initiation and spread of seizures

14

What is "Ictal"

EEG descriptor that that refers to seizure-like; interictal is between seizures

15

What are the general therapeutic strategies available for seizure management?

inhibit voltage gated Na/Cl channels

enhance GABAnergic channels

blockade of excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmitters

16

What are the 4 anti-seizure agents we covered?

Benzodiazepines

barbiturates.

Potassium bromide

carbamazepine/phenytion

17

what is the action/adverse effects of using benzodiazepines as anti-seizure meds?

action: targets GABA receptor, results in hyperpolarization

adverse effects: addictive, hepatotoxic. sedation, not suitable fopr chronic treatment

Diazepam: uselul in stopping cluster seizures,

18

what is the action/adverse effects of using potassium bromide as anti-seizure meds?

action: hyperpolarizes membrane through Br- competing with CL- (forces more Cl- into cell would be my guess

adverse effects: sedation/ataxia main limiting factors

19

what is the action/adverse effects of using barbiturates as anti-seizure meds?

action: raises the seizure threshold

adverse effects: sedation, ataxia, PU/PD, polyphagia, weight gain, hepatoxic in dogs

plasma monitoring necessary to make sure w/in therapeutic range

20

what is the action/adverse effects of using carbamazepine/phenytoin as anti-seizure meds?

action: target inactivation gate of Na channel to keep it open longer-> cannot repolarize, stabilization of neuronal mebrane and decreased excitability

adverse effects:

21

What is the drug of choice for status epilepticus?

Diazepam