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Flashcards in Review Questions Exam 3 Deck (36):
1

_________ is a common source of theobromine poisoning.

chocolate

2

This drug is used to stimulate post anesthesia respiration

doxapram

3

T or F : Methyxanthines act by stimulating adenosine receptors

false

4

_______ is the region of the brain that acts as a relay center

thalamus

5

Dopaminergic cell bodies are located in ______ and ______ regions of the brain

ventral tegumental area, substantia nigra

6

What is the class of behavior modifying drugs that works by enhancing GABAnergic neurotransmission?

Benzodiazepines

7

______ is an anxiolytic that is non sedating and works by activating 5-HT 1A and D2 receptor

Buspirone

8

What class of drugs works by selectively inhibiting 5-HT re-uptake? What is the therapeutic advantages associated with long term use of the drug?

Serotonin Selective Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs).

Therapeutic advantages associated with long term use of the drug includes
not cardio toxic, non sedating, do not impari learning,
side effects uncommon

9

TCAs work by _____. List the side effects associated with long term use of the drug.

block reuptake of NE and 5-HT to a lesser degree, produces desensitization of α-2 adrenergic receptors and 5-HT autoreceptors resulting in elevated extrasynaptic levels of 5-HT and NE, and also serves as blockade of muscarinic receptors responsible for its anticholinergic side effects

10

________ class of drugs work by inhibiting MAO. List the therapeutic uses of the drug.

MAOI

11

Define a Tranquilizer? Do they (Phenothiazine and Butyrophenone) posses inherent analgesic effects?

NO they do not have any analgesic effects

Tranquilizer - neuroleptic, anxiety reduced w/o loss of consciousness, depresses teh hypothalamus and reticualr formation function

12

Are the adverse effects of Phenothiazine reversible?

NO reveral agent

13

What are butyrophenones most commonly used for?

sedative, pre anesthesia, potent antiemtic

14

What is the mechanism of action of Phenothiazines?

blockade of post synaptic dopaminergic receptors- D2 antagonist, results in vasodialtion

H1 antagonist

Serotonin antagonist

15

Describe the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular side effects of phenothiazines?

Pheno- main effect is alpha 1 antagonist resulting in peripheral vasodialtion

baroreceptors interpret this as hypovolemia; reflex tachycardia resutls

AVOID in hypovolemic animals

16

Can phenothiazines be administered to animals undergoing skin testing?

it can, but you shouldn't , act as H1 histaminergic antagonist

17

What are the effects of phenothiazines on seizures?

blockage of RAS, decreased spontaneous motor fx, dampens motor function

18

List the therapeutic uses of phenothiazines

tranquilization- calms the animal and facilitates physical exam/diagnostic procedures

used as pre-anesthetic in general anesthesia, allows dose reduction and amelioration of adverse effects associated with some agents

antiemetic effect in dogs but not cats

19

Which lasts longer for xylazine: the analgesia or sedation?

Sedation

20

What is the net result of alpha 2 adrenergic receptor activation?

Decrease in sympathetic outflow resulting in decreased circulating levels of catecholamines

21

The sedative effects associated with xylazine are related to activation of adrenergic receptors in__________ located in _____________.

locus coeruleus, pons and lower brain stem

22

Provide the rank order of species responsiveness in regards to xylazine’s sedative effects

RMT > cats and dogs > pigs (least)

23

The skeletal muscle relaxation effects of xylazine are related to inhibition of ___________.

interneuronal transmission in the spinal cord

24

Describe the cardiovascular effects of xylazine

bi-phasic response with phase 2 being further perpetrated by central sedative effects and reduced sympathetic tone.

Phase 1: activation of peripheral alpha 2 receptors accounts for the rapid increase in systemic vascular resistance which is clinically identified as an increase in arterial BP - transient process= short duration

Phase 2: Hypertension induces a reflex-baroreceptor mediated physiologic bradycardia, associated with bradyarrythmias and decreased CO.

25

Xylazine produces emesis most frequently in this species

Cat

26

Name a potent alpha 2 agonist you studied in class that can cause ataxia in horses?

Medetomidine in high doses

27

Can Xylazine be given to cattle in the last trimester?

NO should not because increases the risk of premature parturition

oxytocin like effect

28

Define a seizure and its four components

seizure- rapid synchronous, uncontrolled spread of electrical activity; rhythmic firing of if a group of neurons

Prodrome- behavioral changes, that occur days, or hours before

Aura- event characterized by sensory and psycho-sensory symptoms in humans "something is wrong"

Ictus- seizure event

Post-ictal phase- behavior changes, that occur days/hours after

29

An adverse effect that is most common to benzodiazepine anticonvulsants in cats is_________

hepatoxicicty

30

What are the two major medical emergencies related to seizure disorders?

Status Epilepticus

Cluster seizures

31

Identify the type of seizure where structural lesions in the brain may be a predisposing factor for seizure development

Partial seizure

32

List the characteristics of a simple and complex partial seizure

simple- no loss of consciousness, abnormal firing, focus located in the motor portion of cerebral hemisphere

complex- altered consciousness, exhibit repetitive behaviors, abnormal behavior (staring into space, maniac dogs) temporal lobe, likely to evolve into generalized seizure

33

What is the other name for generalized seizures and list its characteristics?

grand mal seizure

most common in animals; brain regions diffusely affected-> more damage
abrupt loss of consciousness

34

What is the mechanism of action of phenytoin?

prolongs the refractory period of voltage gated sodium gated channels

stabilizes the membrane

35

List the names of drugs that elicit their anti-convulsant effects by potentiating GABA neurotransmission

BZ

Barbiturates

36

Describe the mechanism of action of potassium bromide and list its therapeutic uses.

hyperpolarizes the membrane through Br-/Cl-

Br- forces more Cl- to be taken into cell (electromagnetic forces)

long half life- good for terrible pet owners