Flashcards in Basics/Behavior Modifying Drugs Deck (61):
Cerebral Cortex Functionality:
fx in sensations, perceptions, voluntary movement, learning, speech, cognition
where the control centers are
fx in respiration, cardiac and vasomotor control areas
Vermis, located here- balance
cognitive fx such as repetitive events
acts as relay center
filters/modulates sensory information to cerebral cortex
controls the ANS, hormonal reg via pituitary
Basal Ganglia functionality:
voluntary motor control
Limbic System functionality:
cingulate gyrus, hippocampal formation, amygdala
emotions, social behavior, memory
site of action for ANTIDEPRESSANTS and ANTIPSYCHOTICS
Dopamine cell body location:
Norepinephrine cell body location:
Serotonin cell body location:
Raphe nucleus, sends projections to the cortex
Function of dopamine:
act od D1-D5 and DAT
movement, planning, reinforcement
Function of NE:
act on A/B adrenergic receptors, play role in sleep, re anxiety, mood, learning, memory
Function of serotonin
mood, appetite, sleep, higher congnitive fx
what drugs enhance serotonin?
TCAs and SSRIs
What drugs modualte dopamine?
T/F elation caused by hyperserotin transmission
FALSE, caused by hyperdopaminergic transmission
WHat are the 4 dopaminergic pathways in the brain?
arousal effect characterized by return to consciousness in anesthetized or sedated pateints
What do analeptics do?
stimulate medullary respiratory centers and chemoreceptors, to pdx increase in tidal volume
What are the 2 analeptics we discussed?
What is the mech of action of methylxanthines?
PDE inhitors -> increase in cAMP
Binds adenosine receptors
leads to bronchodilation, vasodilation, inhibition of mediator release
Adverse effects of Dopram:
can preciptate seisures in predisposed animals
Adverse effects of methyxanthines:
cardiac disrhythmia can occur in cases of severe toxicity
What is in chocolate that causes a toxicity in dogs?
What is the biogenic hypothesis of mood?
reduction in NE/ 5-HT receptors play role in depression
What is the proposed mech of action of benzodiazapines?
enchance GABAnergic neurotransmission via GABA-a receptor, enhance Cl- channels
Net result is hyperpolarization
What are the 3 levels of benzodiazepine doses and their effect?
low- mild sedative
moderate- ant-anxiety agent
T/F benzodiazepines are indicated for SHORT TERM tx of anxiety disorders
What drugs can oyu combine with benzodiazepines to increase the efficacy?
TCAs / SSRIs
When are benzodiazepines contraindicated and why?
aggressive patients, especially when anxiety is masking aggression, dogs become aggressive once the anxiety is inhibited
What are the adverse effects of benzodiazepines?
need to be gradually weaned off drug
T/F benzodiazepans cause learning impairment
What is Diazepam used to treat?
anxiety for the most part
cat urine spraying, appetite stimualnt in cats, muscle relaxant,
What are the adverse effects of diazepam?
Hepatic necrosis in cats
reduced metabolism of drug when given concurrently with CYP-40 metabolizing drugs
What is Alprazolam used for? What drug should be used with it?
acute fear situations, storm phobia in combo w/ clomipramine
What are the adverse effects pf alprazolam?
should not be given w/ CYP-40 impairing drugs
Indications for oxazepan?
appetite stim in cats
patients w/ imparied heptic fx
Contraindications for oxazepan?
can become anti-social
What are azapirones? `
Selective anxiolytic with minimal side effects
What is Buspirine?
azaprine- takes several weeks to work
generalized anxiety disorders
not associated w/ withdrawal effects
No amnesia effects
What is the mech of TCAs?
block re-uptake of NE/ 5-HT
pdx desensitization of alpha 2 receptors, resulting in elevated extrasynaptic 5-HT/NE levels
anticholinergic sdie effects via muscarinic receptor antagonism
What are the 2 important TCAs she talked about... guys?
Interstitial cystitis in cats
cats w/ inappropriate urination, crazy cats, self mutilating dogs
Adverse effects: sedation, mydriasis, urin retention
FDA approval for anxiety in dogs
Adverse effects of TCAs
anticholinergic effects- dry mouth, constipation, tachy
H1 antagonism- sedation
alpha 1 antagonism- orthostatic hypotension
What are the indications for SSRIs?
targets 5HT reuptake inhibitors
no cardiac toxicicty
depression, anxiety, aggression, compulsive disorders
Adverse effects of SSRIs:
Mech of Action of SSRIs
selectively block presynaptic serotonin transporters (SERT)
inhibit uptake of serotonin
leads to elevated synaptic 5-HT levels
What are MAOIs?
monoamine oxidase inhibitors
prevent the breakdown of NE. 5HT and DA
What is SELEGILINE?
irreversible and selective inhibitor of MAO-B
FDA approval for tx of CCD- canine cognitive disorder
tx buspirone should be administered concurrentyl w/ MAOIs for maximum efficacy
will result in hypertensive crisis
TCAs shouls not be used concurrently w/ SSRIs and MAOIs
may inhibit metabolism
SSRI used concurrently with MAOIs will result in _______
concurrent behavioral therapy is essential for successful pharmacology
________ is used to tx aggression
________ is used to tx anxieties, fear, phobias
________ is used to tx CCD in geriatric patients
________ is used to tx Compulsive disorders
________ is used to tx Hyperkinesis / ADD
Hyperdopamine causes what?
Elation and euphoria