Basics/Behavior Modifying Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basics/Behavior Modifying Drugs Deck (61):
1

Cerebral Cortex Functionality:

info processing/interpretation

fx in sensations, perceptions, voluntary movement, learning, speech, cognition

2

Medulla functionality:

where the control centers are

fx in respiration, cardiac and vasomotor control areas

3

Cerebellum functionality:

voluntary movement

Vermis, located here- balance

cognitive fx such as repetitive events

4

Thalamus functionality:

acts as relay center

filters/modulates sensory information to cerebral cortex

5

Hypothalamus functionality:

controls the ANS, hormonal reg via pituitary

visceral response

internal homeostasis

6

Basal Ganglia functionality:

voluntary motor control

7

Limbic System functionality:

cingulate gyrus, hippocampal formation, amygdala

emotions, social behavior, memory

site of action for ANTIDEPRESSANTS and ANTIPSYCHOTICS

8

Dopamine cell body location:

substansia negri

ventral tegument

9

Norepinephrine cell body location:

locus coeruleus

10

Serotonin cell body location:

Raphe nucleus, sends projections to the cortex

11

Function of dopamine:

act od D1-D5 and DAT

movement, planning, reinforcement

12

Function of NE:

act on A/B adrenergic receptors, play role in sleep, re anxiety, mood, learning, memory

13

Function of serotonin

mood, appetite, sleep, higher congnitive fx

14

what drugs enhance serotonin?

TCAs and SSRIs

15

What drugs modualte dopamine?

neuroleptics

16

T/F elation caused by hyperserotin transmission

FALSE, caused by hyperdopaminergic transmission

17

WHat are the 4 dopaminergic pathways in the brain?

nigrostriatal

mesocortical

mesolimbic

tuberinfundibular

18

Define analeptics:

arousal effect characterized by return to consciousness in anesthetized or sedated pateints

19

What do analeptics do?

stimulate medullary respiratory centers and chemoreceptors, to pdx increase in tidal volume

20

What are the 2 analeptics we discussed?

doxapram

methylxanthines

21

What is the mech of action of methylxanthines?

PDE inhitors -> increase in cAMP

Binds adenosine receptors

leads to bronchodilation, vasodilation, inhibition of mediator release

22

Adverse effects of Dopram:

can preciptate seisures in predisposed animals

23

Adverse effects of methyxanthines:

cardiac disrhythmia can occur in cases of severe toxicity

24

What is in chocolate that causes a toxicity in dogs?

Theobromide

25

What is the biogenic hypothesis of mood?

reduction in NE/ 5-HT receptors play role in depression

26

What is the proposed mech of action of benzodiazapines?

enchance GABAnergic neurotransmission via GABA-a receptor, enhance Cl- channels

Net result is hyperpolarization

27

What are the 3 levels of benzodiazepine doses and their effect?

low- mild sedative

moderate- ant-anxiety agent

high- hypnotic

28

T/F benzodiazepines are indicated for SHORT TERM tx of anxiety disorders

TRUE

29

What drugs can oyu combine with benzodiazepines to increase the efficacy?

TCAs / SSRIs

30

When are benzodiazepines contraindicated and why?

aggressive patients, especially when anxiety is masking aggression, dogs become aggressive once the anxiety is inhibited

31

What are the adverse effects of benzodiazepines?

need to be gradually weaned off drug

physical addiction

ataxia

liver necrosis

32

T/F benzodiazepans cause learning impairment

True

33

What is Diazepam used to treat?

anxiety for the most part

cat urine spraying, appetite stimualnt in cats, muscle relaxant,

neroleptanalgesia

34

What are the adverse effects of diazepam?

Hepatic necrosis in cats

reduced metabolism of drug when given concurrently with CYP-40 metabolizing drugs

35

What is Alprazolam used for? What drug should be used with it?

acute fear situations, storm phobia in combo w/ clomipramine

36

What are the adverse effects pf alprazolam?

should not be given w/ CYP-40 impairing drugs

37

Indications for oxazepan?

appetite stim in cats

patients w/ imparied heptic fx

38

Contraindications for oxazepan?

can become anti-social

fighting fish

39

What are azapirones? `

Selective anxiolytic with minimal side effects

40

What is Buspirine?

azaprine- takes several weeks to work

generalized anxiety disorders

not associated w/ withdrawal effects

No amnesia effects

no sedating

41

What is the mech of TCAs?

block re-uptake of NE/ 5-HT

pdx desensitization of alpha 2 receptors, resulting in elevated extrasynaptic 5-HT/NE levels

anticholinergic sdie effects via muscarinic receptor antagonism

42

What are the 2 important TCAs she talked about... guys?

Amitriptyline

Clomipramine

43

Amitriptyline

Interstitial cystitis in cats

cats w/ inappropriate urination, crazy cats, self mutilating dogs

Adverse effects: sedation, mydriasis, urin retention

44

Clomipramine

FDA approval for anxiety in dogs

45

Adverse effects of TCAs

anticholinergic effects- dry mouth, constipation, tachy

H1 antagonism- sedation

alpha 1 antagonism- orthostatic hypotension

ventricular arhythmia

46

What are the indications for SSRIs?

targets 5HT reuptake inhibitors

non sedating

no cardiac toxicicty

depression, anxiety, aggression, compulsive disorders

47

Adverse effects of SSRIs:

minimal

GI disturbances

serotonin syndrome

48

Mech of Action of SSRIs

selectively block presynaptic serotonin transporters (SERT)

inhibit uptake of serotonin

leads to elevated synaptic 5-HT levels

49

What are MAOIs?

monoamine oxidase inhibitors

prevent the breakdown of NE. 5HT and DA

50

What is SELEGILINE?

irreversible and selective inhibitor of MAO-B

FDA approval for tx of CCD- canine cognitive disorder

51

T/F

tx buspirone should be administered concurrentyl w/ MAOIs for maximum efficacy

FALSE

will result in hypertensive crisis

52

T/F

TCAs shouls not be used concurrently w/ SSRIs and MAOIs

TRUE

may inhibit metabolism

53

SSRI used concurrently with MAOIs will result in _______

serotonin syndrome

54

T/F

concurrent behavioral therapy is essential for successful pharmacology

TRUE

55

________ is used to tx aggression

SSRI
Azapirones
TCAs
hormones
combo

56

________ is used to tx anxieties, fear, phobias

BZs
SSRIS
azapirones
MAOIs
TCAs

57

________ is used to tx CCD in geriatric patients

MAOIs- selegrine

58

________ is used to tx Compulsive disorders

SSRIs
antipsychotics
TCAs
opiods
opiod antagonists

59

________ is used to tx Hyperkinesis / ADD

CNS stimulants

60

Hyperdopamine causes what?

Elation and euphoria

61

What are three examples of Methylxanthines?

Caffeine
Theobromine
Theophylline