Antibacterials/antibiotics Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Part 2 > Antibacterials/antibiotics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antibacterials/antibiotics Deck (24):
1

Beta-lactams
MOA

Disrupt bacterial cell wall or membrane

2

Penicillins

-PO absorbtion affected by acid/food
-renal tubular secretion for elimination- sensitive to renal fxn
AE: mostly due to hypersensitivity rxn: rash/allergy

3

Natural: penicillin
Extended spectrum: ampicillin, amoxicillin
Anti-staph: methicillin, natacillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin
Anti pseudomonal: pipericillin, ticaricillin*

"Classes" of penicillins

4

Cephalosporins

Organized in generations due to years and spectrum
AE: allergy (cross rxn with PCN)
CNS ( fever, seizure), hemolytic anemia, bone marrow suppression
Possible disulfiram rxn with cefotelon
Diarrhea, C.diff, interstitial nephritis

5

Carbapenems

-IV
Severe infections
Cross rxn with PCN and cephalosporins
* seizure risk

6

Impenem, meropenem, ertapenem, doripenem

Carbapenems

7

Monobactams
-Aztreonam

-IV
Limited to G- rods
No cross rxn with PCN

8

Tetracyclines

MOA: interfere with bacterial protien/DNA/RNA synthesis via ribosomes (inhibit protien synthesis)
-bacteriostatic
Broad spectrum
AE: tooth discolor, bone problems, avoid in pregnancy, photosensitivity, hepatotoxicty, Caution with expired meds

9

Macrolides

MOA: interfere protein synthesis via ribosomes
-bacteriostatic
AE: abdominal pain, N/V/D, QTc prolongation, may increase GI motility- erythromycin, azythromicin

10

Erythromycin
Azythromicin (Zithromax)
Clorithromycin

Macrolides

11

Fluoroquinolones

MOA: disrupt DNA transcription/ translation
-bacteriocidal
-resistance is concern
-active against anaerobes
-renal elim
Toxicities: CNS stimulation, tendon rupture, QT prolongation, hyper/hypoglycemia

12

Sulfonamides

MOA: interfere with protein/DNA/rna synthesis by blocking folic acid
-broad spectrum (mersa)
-hepatic met-renal elim
AE: allergy( cross rxn to other sulfa-sulfonylureas)
Hemolytic anemia
Photosensitivity
Skin rxn
Megoblastic anemia
INX: warfarin, sulfonylureas

13

Sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaacetamide

Sulfonamides

14

Amino glycosides

MOA: inhibit protien synthesis via ribosomes
-bacterialcidal
*used in highly severe G- infections
-renal elim
AE: *nephrotoxicity
*ototoxicity
Neuromuscular blockade

15

Gentamicin, tobramicin, amikacin

Amino glycosides

16

Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Carbapenems
Monobactams

Beta lactam type antibiotics

17

Vancomycin

MOA: disrupts bacterial wall or membrane
-G+ only
* use is restricted to treat G+ infections, last resort med
*no oral absorbtion,90% renal elim
-PO, IV
IV doesn't pass thru gut-won't treat Cdiff
*oral only for Cdiff
Can drink IV
AE: phlebitis, red man syndrome (allergic rxn), *nephrotoxicity, *ototoxicity

18

Clindamycin (cleocin)

MOA: inhibits bacterial protien synthesis via ribosomes
-will not treat Cdiff( promotes it)
AE: diarrhea, hepatotoxicty, rashes, blood dyscasias

19

Metronidazole (Flagyl)
*Cdiff

MOA: disrupts DNA transcription/translation
-anti protazoal
-spectrum: anaerobes
*IV & PO will treat Cdiff
* gut and abcesses

AE: disulfiram rxn

20

Rifaximin (xifaxin): inhibits RNA synthesis, limited to systemic absorption

Fidaxomicin (dificid): only for Cdiff

Anti Cdiff drugs
Including metronidazole (Flagyl)

21

Telethomycin (ketek): liver toxic, drug inx
Linezolid (zylox), tedizolid (sivextro): VRE, MRSA
Quinipristin/dalfopristin (synercid)
Daptomycin (cubicin)
Telovancin (vibativ): caution with renal dysfunction

Unique antibacterials
*use is limited/restricted for use only with highly resistant organisms
*restricted to limit resistance

22

Tuberculosis: mycobacterium (lipid and mycolic acid in cell wall)
-slowly growing
-able to become resistant very fast due to mutation

Isoniazid (INH)
Rifampin (rifamycin antibiotic)

23

Isoniazid (INH)
Anti TB

MOA: inhibits synthesis of mycolic acid
*1st choice to treat TB
AE: neuropathy, hepatotoxicty, lupus like syndrome
*peripheral neuropathy
* hepatotoxicty (anorexia, nausea, jaundice)

24

Rifampin (rifamycin type antibacterial)
Anti TB

MOA: inhibits RNA polymerase
* strongest enzyme inducer ever (increase metabolism of all drugs)
AE: hepatotoxicty ( increase LFTs), discoloration of body fluids (orange) will stain contacts, N/V, anorexia, flushing, inching,,flu like symptoms