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Flashcards in Antidepressant Drugs Deck (12):

Affective Disorders

Group of mental conditions that includes depression and bipolar disorder
Characterized by changes in mood
Distinct from schizophrenia (produces disturbances of thought)
Most prevalent mental illness in US/Canada
Can be exacerbated or triggered by stressful incident, or be idiopathic onset
Role of genetic factors in unclear - higher incidence of depression in offspring of parent(s) with depression


4 Goals of Pharmacology for Depression

Relieve symptoms of depression
Prevent suicide
Restore optimal functioning
Prevent recurrence


What 3 NTs does Monoamine Oxidase Inhibit?

1. Norepinephrine
2. 5-hydroxytryptamine (Serotonin)
3. Dopamine



Monoamine Oxidase
A mitochondrial enzyme
Found in neural and other tissues
Inactivates excess catecholamines in nerve ending


MAO Inhibitor Adverse Effects (3)

1. Hypertensive crisis can result due to increased stores of NOR
2. Tyramine levels can increase (have to be really careful of what they eat)
3. Risk of serotonin syndrome (while you're switching to a new drug - get seizures, hypothermia, etc)


Tricyclic and heterocyclic Antidepressants Adverse Effects (4)

1. Excessive sedation
2. Antimuscarinic effects
3. Sympathomimetic effects
4. Orthostatic hypotension, EEG abnormalities


Antimuscarinic effects

Side effect of Tricyclic and Heterocyclic ADs
Blocks muscarinic, alpha 1, and adrenergic receptors in periphery
Blocking alpha 1 gives you orthostatic hypotension
Can also get cardio abnormalities and arrhythmias


SSRI adverse effects

1. Nausea
2. Headache
3. Anxiety/Agitation
4. Insomnia
5. Sexual dysfunction

May also precipitate suicidal ideologies and suicidal feelings in young adolescents



Has antidepressant and antianxiety properties
Blocks presynaptic apha2-AR and increased NE and 5-HT release



Weak inhibitor of DA, 5-HT, NE uptake
Few side effects (no sedation, decreased CV effects, and no sexual dysfunction)
Used for patients who want to quit smoking


2 theories of depression

1. Monoamine theory
2. Neurotropic Hypothesis (increased BDNF transcription and increased synaptogenesis in chronic use)


4 goals for antidepressant drugs

Relieve symptoms of depression
Prevent suicide
Restore optimal functioning
Prevent recurrence