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Flashcards in Aorta Neck and Brain Deck (34):
1

ligamnetum arteriosum

fibrous connective tissue cord. connects deep surface of aortic arch to bifurcation in pulmonary trunk. remnants of ductus arteriosus (fetal circulation)

2

aortic arch

terminates at T4 vertebral level. becomes thoracic aorta below diaphragm is decending aorta.

3

right brachiocephalic

branches into right carotid artery which supplies right side of head, neck, brain and the right subclavian which supplies right upper extremity, some to brain and branch of heart.

4

left carotid

supplies left side of head, neck, and brain

5

left subclavian

supplies left upper extremity, some to brain and branch to heart

6

phrenic nerve

arises from c3-c5 nerves, supplies diaphragm. if injured paralysis of diaphragm on that side

7

4 parts of brain

cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum

8

cerebrum

controls thought. center for perception, communication, understanding, and memory

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fold

gyri or convolutions

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deep grooves

fissures

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shallower grooves

sulci

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cerebrum longitudinal fissure

separates cerebrum into left and right hemispheres

13

corpus callosum

connects cerebral hemispheres

14

cerebral lobes

temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal

15

central sulcus

separates frontal and parietal lobe

16

pre central gyrus

anterior to the central sulcus (primary motor area)

17

post central gyrus

posterior to central sulcus (primary somatosensory area)

18

vertebral artery

branch of subclavian and supplies posterior brain

19

internal carotid artery

branch of common carotid. supplies anterior brain

20

external carotid artery

branch of common carotid artery. supplies face and neck

21

circle of willis

anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery , anterior communicating artery, posterior communicating artery

22

anterior cerebral artery

courses superior and then posteriorly along corpus callosum

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anterior communicating artery

branch off of anterior cerebral artery. very short and connects two anterior cerebral arteries

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middle cerebral artery

between parietal and temporal lobes

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anterior communicating artery

connects anterior cerebral arteries together

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posterior communicating artery

connects each internal carotid to basilar

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collateral circulation within circle of willis

anterior communicating artery, posterior communicating artery

28

anterior circulation

main source: two internal carotids, internal carotid artery divides into anterior and middle cerebral arteries. functions as majority of cerebral circ. obstruction causes contralateral motor and sensory deficit

29

posterior circulation

main source is two vertebral arteries which combine to form basilar artery basilar divide to form posterior cerebral arteries. functions to supply cerebrum brain stem. obstruction equals vision loss and vertigo

30

strokes left dominant

aphasia, right hemiparesis, right sided sensory loss, right visual field defect, poor right conjugate gaze, dysarthria, difficulty reading, writing or calculating

31

strokes right dominant

neglect of left visual field, extinction of left sided stimuli,
left hemiparesis, left sided sensory loss, left visual field defect, poor left conjugate gaze, dysarthria, spatial disorientation

32

ischemic brain infarcts : strokes

vessel wall embolus (most common), carotid artery most common source. related to thrombus formation distal to stenosis

33

cardiac source of strokes

atrial fibrillation, mitral valve stenosis, mitral valve prolapse, calcified mitral annulus, ventricular aneurysm or dyskinesia, atrial or ventricular clot, valvular vegetation, atrial septal defect

34

other vascular sources of strokes

intracranial artery thrombus (esp. blacks), aortic atherosclerotic plaque, transient hypotension with carotid stenosis > 75%