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Flashcards in Renal Deck (35):
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Kidney functions

Ion reg.,pH,vol.,pressure,osmolarity,hormones,blood glucose,excretion of wastes

1

Ion reg.

Na,K, Cl,Ca,phosphate

2

Ph reg.

Excretes hydrogen and conserves bicarb

3

Reg. of blood volume

Eliminates or conserves water

4

Reg. of bp

Secretes renin and which activates renin angiotensin aldosterone pathway, causes increase in bp

5

Hormones

1.)Releases calcitrol (vit. d). Regulates calcium homeostasis
2) erythropoietin rbc production

6

Reg. of glucose

Can use gluconeogenesis to produce glucose from glutamine.

7

Excretion of waste

Uri. Acid. bilirubin, creatinine, drugs, toxins, plasma free hgb.

8

Kidney size

10-12 cm. long, 5-7 cm. wide , 3cm thick. Weigh about 135-150 grams

9

Renal capsule

Deepest layer. Smooth transparent layer. Continuous with outer cover of ureter. Provides barrier and protection from trauma. Helps maintain shape.

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Adipose capsule

Middles layer, fatty tissue surrounding renal capsule, protects kidney and holds it into place.

11

Renal fascia

Dense irregular connective tissue, anchors kidney to abdominal walls and other structures.

12

Renal hilum or hilus contains

Ureter, lymphatics, blood vessels, nerves

13

Renal medulla

Several cone shaped pyramids. The wider end or base faces the renal cortex and the apex faces the hilum

14

Renal cortex

Superficial and light red area. Smooth textured. Areas between medullas are part of cortex called columns

15

Renal lobe

Renal pyramid plus half of column

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Parenchyma

Functional part of kidney. Functional part of kidney.

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Nephron

Functional unit of kidney. About 1 million per kidney

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Percentage of body mass.

.5%

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Percentage of CO

20-25% about 1200 ml/min.

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Renal artery divides into

Segmental arteries which supply a segment of kidney

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Segmental branch into

Interlobar arteries which enter parenchyma through columns and at the base interlobar arteries branch into renal medulla and renal cortex called accurate arteries.

22

Accurate produce

Interlobular arteries and pass between renal lobules. They go to cortex and branch into afferent arterioles

23

Each nephron receives

One afferent arteriole which divide into a tangled cap network called a glomerelus

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Glomerular arterioles unite to form

Efferent arterioles. Glomerular caps unique because they are between two arterioles

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Efferent arterioles further divide to form

Peritubular caps. Which surround tubular parts of nephron in cortex

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Vasa recta

Supply tubular parts of nephron in medulla

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Parts of nephron

Renal corpuscle Where plasma is filtered. Made up of glomerulus and glomerulus capsule. Renal tubule where filtered plasma passes through.proximal and distal convoluted tubule, and the loop of henle

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Cortical nephrons

80-85 percent of nephrons. peri tubular caps for absorption. Have short LOH

29

Juxtamedullary nephrons

In cortex next to medulla but have long LOH that is in medulla. Use peri tubular caps and vasa recta for absorption

30

Flow through cortical nephron

Glomerular (bowman's) capsule > proximal convoluted tubule > descending limb of the loop of Henle , ascending limb of LOH > distal convoluted tubule > collecting duct > papillary duct

31

Flow through juxtamedullary nephron

Bowman capsule > proximal convoluted tubule > descending limb of LOH > thin ascending limb of LOH > thick ascending loop of LOH, distal convoluted tubule > collecting duct > papillary duct

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Rest urinary system drains from

Nephron to papillary duct. They go to minor calyces.

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Minor calyces

Receive urine from one papilla. 8-18 per kidney.

34

Major calyces

Receive urine from minor calyces. 2-3 per kidney. They go to the ureter than the urinary bladder.