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Flashcards in respiratory system Deck (40):
1

respiratory system is comprised of

nose pharynx (throat) larynx (voice box) trachea (windpipe) bronchi lungs

2

upper respiratory

nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx associated structures

3

lower respiratory

trachea, bronchi, lungs

4

conducting zone

outside lungs. nose nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx , bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles. function is to filter warm and moisten air to conduct to lungs

5

respiratory zone

tubes and tissue where gas exchange happens. respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts , alveolar sacs, alveoli.

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nose

warm air (capillaries), moisten air (mucus) and filter, detect olfactory stimuli, and modify speech

7

pharynx

funnel shaped tube 5 inches long. starts at internal nares and extends to level of cricoid cartilage. made of skeletal muscle and is lined with mucous. can relax and contract. passageway for air and food

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three anatomical regions of pharynx

1.)naso pharynx: nasal cavity to soft palate.
2.)oropharynx: soft palate inferior to hyoid bone (where the opening of the mouth is and is a passageway for air and food).
3.) laryngopharynx: hyoid bone inferior to esophagus (posteriorly) and larynx (anteriorly)

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larynx

short passageway that connects laryngopharynx with trachea. 3 single pieces. thyroid epiglottis and cricoid 3 paired also

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thyroid

adams apple- 2 fused plates of hyaline cartilage that form anterior wall of larynx

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epiglottis

large leaf shaped elastic cartilage covered by epithelium. stem attached to anterior rim of thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone. leaf portion unattached and free to move up and down like a trap door. cover larynx during swallowing and opens up to allow air

12

swallowing

pharynx and larynx rise. elevation of larynx causes epiglottis to move down and form a lid over vocal cords

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trachea

5 inches long with 1 inch diameter. located anterior to esophagus. extends from larynx to superior border of 5th thoracic vertebrae. divides into left and primary bronchi

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layers of tracheal wall

mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage, adventitia. has 16-20 hyaline cartilage ring stacked

15

carina

point where trachea divides into bronchi

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difference between right and left primary bronchi

right is more vertical, wider, and shallower. aspirated objects likely to lodge here

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primary bronchi to end of conducting zone

primary bronchi > secondary bronchi goes to each lobe (right has 3 and left has 2)> tertiary bronchioles > branch repeatedly to terminal bronchioles

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cartilage to smooth muscle ratio down bronchial tree

cartilage decreases and smooth muscle increases

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constriction of airways (smooth muscle) can be caused by

muscle spasms (asthma attack), PNS and allergic reactions (histamine)

20

dialation of airways

EPI/NE BY SNS. INCREASES VENTILATION

21

Difference between bronchus and bronchiole

bronchus has cartilage which allows larger diameter and prevention of airway collapse

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hilum

medial region that contains the bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymphatics and nerves

23

vagus nerve

parasympathetic causes bronchial smooth muscle constriction and sympathetic NE/EPI causes bronchial dilation. interesting!!!

24

parietal pleura

adherent to chest wall highly sensitive to pain

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visceral pleura

adherent to surface of lung and doesn't feel pain

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pleural cavity

space between pleura contains serous fluid that lubricate lung surface during respiration and surface tension so lungs adhere to chest wall

27

left lung

contains concavity (cardiac notch) where apex sits, and thus is 10% smaller than right

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right lung

thicker broader and shorter due to diaphragm being higher to accommodate liver

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lobes

1 or 2 fissure divide lung into lobes.
1.)left lung has oblique fissure which divides superior and inferior lobes
2.)right lung has oblique fissure which separates superior from inferior lobe and inferior from middle lobe. also has horizonatal fissure which separates superior and middle lobe

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each lobe receives...

secondary bronchus. right gets superior inferior and middle. left gets superior and inferior secondary bronchus

31

how many tertiary bronchi in each lung

10

32

how many alveoli in lung

300 million

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surface area of alveoli

70 m^2

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alveolar sac

has 2 or more alveoli

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alveolus

cup shaped out pouching

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surfactant

phospholipids and lipoproteins that lower surface tension of alveolar fluid, which reduces tendency for alveoli to collapse and maintains patency

37

respiratory membrane

alveolar wall (2 types of cells), epithelial basement membrane, capillary basement membrane (fused to epithelial basement membrane) capillary endothelium. all of this is under .5 micrometers!!

38

blood supply of lungs

pulmonary arteries 1 for each lung and pulmonary veins 2 from each lung

39

hypoxia on pulmonary blood vessels

constriction. all other body tissues hypoxia causes dilation. this vasoconstriction allows for better ventilation/perfusion coupling. BF matches extent of ventilation alveoli are recieving

40

lungs have dual blood supply

1.)pulmonary circ. pulm. arteries> capillaries > pulmonary veins
2.)bronchial circ. oxygen rich blood via bronchial arteries (branches of the thoracic aorta). supply terminal bronchioles, outer walls of pulmonary vessels and supporting tissue.