Flashcards in Aortic Aneurysm Deck (26):
What is an aneurysm.
An artery with a dilation of more than 50% of its original diameter.
What are the two forms of aneurysms.
What is a true aneurysm.
It is an abnormal permanent dilation of an artery or in the heart involving all the layers of vessel wall.
What are the two types of true aneurysms.
Saccular (protrudes from one side of the vessel, eg Berry aneurysms).
Fisuform (generalised dilation of the vessel, eg most AAAs).
What type of aneurysm are most AAAs. (2)
What is the most common cause of a true aneurysm.
What are the causes of true aneurysms. (5)
Congenital weakness (eg berry aneurysm in circle of willis, Marfan's syndrome).
Degenerative (AAA due to atherosclerosis).
Trauma (injury to a vessel wall).
Infection (bacterial arteritis).
Inflammatory (Kawasaki disease, Takayasu's aortitis).
What is a false aneurysm.
A haematoma containing liquid blood (in the adventitia- outer layer of the blood vessel) which communicates with blood in the arterial lumen.
What is the cause of false aneurysms.
Due to trauma. (eg iatrogenic arterial puncture for angiography)
What are the signs of false aneurysms. (2)
Pulsatile mass with history of trauma or arterial puncture.
What is a common cause of false aneurysms.
Commonly diagnosed after groin post-angioplasty. (if a pulsatile mass is present)
What is a popliteal aneurysm.
It is the commonest peripheral aneurysm.
What percentage of patients with AAA go on to develop a popliteal aneurysm.
Are popliteal aneurysms more commonly unilateral or bilateral.
What are the symptoms of popliteal aneurysms.
What are the signs of a popliteal aneurysm. (2)
Pulsatile mass (possibly bilateral).
Distal ischaemia following thrombosis or embolization.
What are the common sites of aneurysms. (4)
Aorta (infrarenal most common).
(in decreasing frequency)
What are the complications of aneurysms. (5)
Pressure on other structures.
Who gets screened for aneurysms in the UK.
All men at age 65.
It decreases the mortality from a ruptured AAA.
What is a rare infective cause or aortaitis that will then produce saccular aneurysms.
Syphilis (usually tertiary).
Where do aneurysms usually develop in aortitis.
In the ascending aorta.
What conditions are associated with aortitis. (5)
Giant cell arteritis.
What clinical features are associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms. (5)
Compressive symptoms such as stridor (trachea, bronchus) and hoarseness (recurrent laryngeal nerve).
Superior vena cava syndrome.
What is a complication of thoracic aorta aneurysms.
If they erode into adjacent structures (eg aorto-oesophageal fistula)
What occurs if an aorto-oesophageal fistula is present.