aos 1 : nervous systems and neutrons Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in aos 1 : nervous systems and neutrons Deck (32):
1

nervous system

a network of neurons that coordinate actions and transmit signals between different parts of the body, it consists of 2 divisions; Central NS & peripheral NS.

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brain

responsible for memory, attention, concentration, language, spatial skills

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spinal cord

3 major functions;
1. transmits sensory information from PNS to brain
2. transmits motor information from brain to PNS enabling movement
3. reflex arc

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sensory neurons

aka afferent neurons, send sensory info (from environment) from sense organs (skin receptors, eyes, ears etc) to the brain via the spinal cord (central NS) for further processing

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motor neurons

aka efferent neurons, sends motor info (originating in primary motor cortex) via spinal cord to skeletal muscles in PNS enabling voluntary movement.

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interneurons

can only be found in the CNS; they integrate information with other neurons ie. sensory and motor

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dendrites

are the branched projections of neurons that receive input from other neurons

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synapse

a junction that permits a neutron to pass on a chemical signal to another cell

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neurotransmitters

chemicals which allow transmission of signals from 1 neutron to another

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soma

the cell body which contains most of the cells genetic material

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axon

a long projection of a neutron that conducts electrical impulses away from the soma

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PNS

contains all the neurons outside the CNS

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CNS

division of the NS which processes and interprets incoming information, stores memories, sends out neural information that initiates actions; made up of brain and spinal cord

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somatic NS

a division of the PNS, responsible for voluntary movement & transmission of sensory information to CNS

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autonomic NS

division of PNS which connects CNS to visceral muscles, which keeps vital organs going with conscious thought

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visceral muscles

muscles that regulate the internal organs (without conscious thought) eg. heart, lungs

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skeletal muscles

muscles attached to bones, which require a command from the brain (motor cortex) to move

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sympathetic NS

a division of the autonomic NS which prepares the body for action, by increasing the body physiological arousal when the organism is under threat

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parasympathetic NS

a division of the PNS which counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic NS and maintains an optimum level of functioning during low stress times

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homeostasis

a steady internal body environment, that is maintained by the parasympathetic NS during low stress times

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myelin

a white fatty substance that protects the axon and enhances the transmission of the electrical impulse

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neurons

the core components of the NS

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receptors

the structures on the dendrites neurons that recognise and bind specific neurotransmitters

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neurohormone

similar to a neurotransmitter but it can be released into the bloodstream or in the brain via a presynaptic neuron

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glutamate

the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. it plays a key role in learning (LTP), memory, thinking and movement

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GABA

the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. it regulates arousal, by counteracting the effects of glutamate

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dopamine

a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in pleasure, reinforcement, movement, dependancy

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inhibitory

when these types of neurotransmitters bind with postsynaptic neurons, they Arte less likely to fire an action potential

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excitatory

when these types of neurotransmitters bind with postsynaptic neurons, they are more likely to fire an action potential

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presynaptic

the sending neuron

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postsynaptic

the receiving neuron

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vesicles

storage sites of neurotransmitters that can be found in axon terminals