aos2 : stress Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in aos2 : stress Deck (34):

what is eustress with an example

a positive psychological response to a stressor, characterised by positive psychological states, that helps the body perform at an optimal level. for example, the thrill you experience when watching a horror movie


what is distress with an example

a negative psychological response to a stressor, characterised by negative psychological states, that impedes optimal performance. for example, the death of a loved one


what are daily pressures? with eg

frequently experienced stressors consisting of relatively minor events that require adjustments in behaviour. or example, missing the bus


what are life events? with eg

stressors that consist of significant but relatively rare events that require substantial adjustments in behaviour within a relatively short time. for example, wedding or family death


what is acculturative stress? with eg

stressed caused by attempting to psychologically and socially adapt to the demands and values of a foreign culture. for example, relocating to a new country


what are major catastrophes? with eg

a sudden, unpredictable, uncontrollable, intense event that causes large scale damage and suffering for a group. for example, a war


why are the symptoms of PTSD

- reoccurring vivid flashbacks and/or nightmares about event
- avoiding reminders of the event
- feeling detached from others
- negative thought pattern
- increased anger
- disruption to sleep
- prolonged autonomic arousal


what is chronic stress?

a state if prolonged physiological arousal in response to a persistent stressor that negatively affects health and well being


what is acute stress?

a state of brief but intense physiological arousal in response to an immediate perceived stressor that normally has no negative effects on health and well being


what is stress?

a state of mental or physical tension that occurs when an individual must adjust or adapt to their environment but they do not feel they have the capacity to do so


what is a stressor?

the object or event that causes a feeling of stress


what is selves GAS model

a biological process


what happens in the alarm reaction (shock) stage

the resistance to stress is below normal, the body acts as though its injured as blood pressure and body temperature drop


what happens in the alarm reaction (counter shock) stage

the resistance to stress is above normal, the sympathetic NS is activated as well as the FFF response and adrenalin is released


what happens in the resistance stage

the resistance to stress is above normal, cortisol is released and all unnecessary functions are shut down, individual appears as if all is normal


what happens in the exhaustion stage

the resistance to stress is below normal, resources are depleted, the immune system is left weakened and prolonged release of adrenalin has negative effects on the body, the individual is susceptible to illness & disease


what is cortisol?

Cortisol is a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands (above kidneys) and it is directly secreted into the bloodstream for quick tranposrtation throughout the body


what is the function of cortisol?

Cortisol can help control blood sugar levels, regulate metabolism, help reduce inflammation, and assist with memory formulation


what is the role of cortisol in the stress response

cortisol energises the body by increasing availability of blood glucose and enhanced metabolism and is controlled by the HPA axis


strengths of gas model

- it measures a predictable pattern that can be measured in individisuals
- tracks biological patterns in different types of stress


limitations of gas model

- research wasn't conducted on humans
- does not account for individual differences and psychological factors


differences between primary and secondary appraisals

the primary appraisal focuses on whether the stressor will have a positive or negative effect on us or if it is relevant or not. the secondary appraisal is to figure out what resources are available to cope with the stressor


different between problem and emotion focused coping

problem focused strategies directly target the stressor and aim to reduce it, whereas emotion focused strategies aim to manage the emotional distress caused by a stressor by changing the unpleasant emotions associated with it


strengths of transactional model

- human subjects
- accounted for both mental processes and emotions
- acknowledged that its a personal/individual/subjective model


limitations of transactional model

- initial appraisal may not be clear cut
- difficult to test experimentally
- less emphasis on physiological elements


what happens with too much cortisol

causes a biochemical imbalance and hormone imbalance that can cause blood sugar imbalances and higher blood pressure, increased weight


what is coping

all the things we do to manage and reduce stress


what is coping strategy

behavioural or psychological responses a person uses to manage or reduce a stressor


what is context specific effectiveness

whether there is a match or good fit between coping strategy that is used and stressful situation


what is coping flexibility

individuals ability to effectively modify or adjust ones coping strategy according to demand of situation. high - readily adaptable
low - rely on same strategy


physical benefits of exercise

- increases energy levels
- strengthens your immune system
- lowers risk of disease
- maintains healthy heart rate, blood pressure and core temperature threshold
- relaxes tense muscles and tissues to reduce pains
- promotes release of serotonin and endorphins


psychological benefits of exercise

- reduces mental fatigue
- improves alertness and concentration
- reduces stress related anxiety
- promotes a positive modd because of increased levels of seratonin and endorphins


what are approach strategies

effort to confront stressor and deal with it directly
- activity focused towards stressor, causes and solutions that address underlying issues and minimise impact of stressor eg. plan of action, seeking info, alertness


what are avoidant strategies

effort to evade stressor and deal indirectly with its effects
- activity focused away from stressor, no attempt to actively confront stressor/causes eg. ignore it, change subject, use of alcohol or drugs