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Flashcards in sac 3 - learning and memory sac Deck (39):
1

what is neural plasticity

the ability of the brain's neural structure or function to be changed in response to the environment, influenced by genetic and environmental factors

2

what is synaptogenisis

the process by which synapses are forms between neurons, this occurs throughout life but most rapidly during infancy up to 2 years.

3

what is learning

a relatively permanent change in behaviour due t experience

4

what is memory

the process of encoding, storage and retrieval of information

5

in what ways can neural plasticity occur?

- producing growth of new syntactic connections
- pruning away existing (unused) synaptic connections
- modifying the strength or effectiveness of synaptic transmission

6

what is long term potentiation

long lasting strengthening of synaptic connections resulting in enhanced or more effective synaptic transmission.
-more vesicles, neurotransmitters and receptor sites
- increased communication

7

what is long term depression

long lasting decrease in the strength of synaptic transmission, resulting from lack of stimulation
-less vesicles, neurotransmitters and receptor sites
-decreased communications

8

neurotransmitters

- chemical substance that is released at the synapse to interact between pre and post synapse neuron
- only function as a neurotransmitter
- can dampen or enhance a response
- released quickly and travel short distances

9

neurohormones

- a chemical substance that is released by a neuron and is secreted into circulation
- can function as a hormone or a neurotransmitter
- can dampen or enhance a response
- slower release and travel longer distances

10

similarities between neurohormones and neurotransmitters

-chemical messengers
- can enhance or inhibit a response

11

what is the role of glutamate in memory and learning

- main excitatory neurotransmitter for learning and memory
- promotes growth and strengthening of synaptic connections between neurons
- vital role in LTP and LTD: the more glutamate can excite the post synaptic neuron the more it contributes to LTP(&vice versa)

12

what is the role of adrenalin in memory and learning

- can enhance the encoding process of log term memories of emotionally arousing experiences
- affects memory by activating the amygdala for a fear response. tends to enhance our memory retention and consolidation

13

what is consolidation

the process of making a newly formed memory stable and enduring after learning

14

what is operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behaviour becomes controlled by its consequences. it is a voluntary behaviour

15

3 phase model of OC

A- antecedent (discriminative stimulus)--Stimulus conditions that exist in the environment prior to response
B- behaviour--Response or voluntary behaviour of the organism
C- Consequence--Consequence that is applied to the response

16

what are reinforcers

any stimulus that strengthens or increases a response
Positive reinforcement - a reward which strengthens a response by providing a pleasant consequence eg. a star on a chart
Negative reinforcement - the removal, reduction or prevention of an unpleasant stimulus eg taking a panadol for headache, if it works you'll take it again

17

what are punishers

any stimulus that weakens decreases the likelihood of a. response
Punishment - a behaviour followed by a negative experience eg detention
Response Cost - a form of punishment that entails something pleasurable being removed eg phone taken away

18

what is classical conditioning

a form of learning where two normally unrelated stimuli are repeatedly linked so that existing reflex responses are elicited by new stimuli; also known as respondent conditioning

19

what is the neutral stimulus (NS)

a stimulus that does not naturally elicit any specific response eg bell

20

what is the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

a specific stimulus that is innately capable of eliciting a reflex response eg food

21

what is the unconditioned response (UCR)

the natural, automatic response to a specific unconditioned stimulus eg salivation

22

what is conditioned stimulus (CS)

a stimulus that evokes a specific response due to learning eg bell

23

what is the conditioned response (CR)

a reflex response to a previously neutral stimulus that occurs after learning has taken place eg salivation

24

phases of classical conditioning

phase 1 -- before conditioning (before learning)
phase 2 -- during conditioning (During learning) known as acquisition; the learning itself, gaining of knowledge
phase 3 -- after conditioning (after learning)

25

limitations of punishment

- doesn't teach whats right, only whats wrong
- it could be too harsh or too soft
- might not be the right timing

26

what is observational learning

when learning occurs by watching others and noting the consequences of their actions, then imitating or not imitating their behaviour

27

steps in observational learning (ARRMR)

All Rude Rats Make raspberries
-Attention - focus on distinctive features of model’s behaviour.
- Retention -- need to be able to remember model's behaviour
- Reproduction -- must be capable of imitating behaviour
- motivation -- needs to be an incentive in imitating behaviour
- reinforcement -- must be some reward for modelling behaviour (internal satisfaction, vicarious reinforcement or external reinforcement)

28

comparing classical and operant conditioning

classical is passive, operant is active
classical involves the stimulus then a response, operant is response then stimulus
classical is a reflex so is involuntary, operant is voluntary
classical involves autonomic NS, operant involves somatic NS
classical can substitute one stimuli for another, operant cannot

29

similarities of classical and operant conditioning

both learning models
both 3 stage models

30

stimulus generalisation in classical conditioning

when stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response

31

stimulus discrimination in classical conditioning

the ability to discriminate between stimuli so that only a specific stimulus produces the conditioned response

32

extinction in classical conditioning

gradual decrease in strength or frequency of a CR when the UCS is no longer available

33

spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning

the reappearance of a CR to the CS after a period of apparent extinction

34

operant stimulus generalisation

the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to stimuli that precede operant reinforcement

35

operant stimulus discrimination

the ability to differentiate between similar stimuli to the stimuli that signal reinforcement and non reinforcement

36

operant extinction

when the learnt response gradually decreases in strength or rate of response after reinforcement stops

37

operant spontaneous recovery

reappearance of a previously reinforced response after a period of operant extinction

38

acquisition difference for CC and OC

CC - Association of two stimuli NS and UCS.
OC - Association of response with a consequence.

39

ethical considerations breach in little Albert

informed consent - alberts mother claims she was not told of what the experiment would entail so there was not adequate permission given
confidentiality- Watson published the results of the experience, Albert wasn't remained anonymous
experience trauma- Albert suffered emotionally after the experiment
debrief- Albert and his mother were not told of the conditioning experiment and what they were actually doing while he was conditioned