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Flashcards in AOS 3 The Duchess Deck (31)
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1

How the music helps to create the idea of style and period

Instruments used are typical of the time.
Music from classical composers are used in other parts of the film.
Most of the writing is restrained and non-virtuosic, avoiding extremes of range and dynamics.

2

Structure of 'The duchess'

A - string melody with harp/sting quaver accompaniment and off-beat string chords
B - Solo violin melody
C - A tutti idea using an auxiliary figure, followed by a solo violin playing ideas based off of two bars in section A

3

Structure of 'Mistake of your life'

Introduction - low string chords over a bass pedal and timpani ostinato
A - Same rhythm played four times with the second half of the idea being transposed up a tone (from G minor to A minor)
B - Piano melody, backed by strings/woodwind and the second half of the idea is a tone lower (sequence)
A - melody from 19 is played an octave higher, with the addition of a crotchet countermelody using rocking thirds, with the second half of the idea altered to allow extended dominant chords
B - Tutti version of B an octave higher
A - Uses first phrase of A and ends on an unresolved 6/4 chord

4

Structure of 'Six Years Later'

Introduction - Establishes strong D major tonality
A - Triadic melodic ideas, combined with a chromatic lower auxiliary.
Link - Introduction texture used, with augmented triad for interest.
B - Material from 'The Duchess' A, B and C section, but only fragments are used.
Coda - Quaver fifths from opening of 'The Duchess'

5

Structure of 'Never See Your Children Again'

A - Gently dissonant string quaver figures over sustained descending bass line, with as slow rising, stepwise melody.
B - Textures and material from opening section of 'mistake of your life', finishing on dissonant/unresolved chord.

6

Structure of 'End titles'

A - Shortened form of A from 'The Duchess'
B - Slight variations from B from 'The Duchess' (e.g. some bars are omitted)
C - Repeated and extended
D - Material based on auxiliary figure from 'The Duchess'
C - Acts as a coda

7

Tonality of 'The Duchess'

Modal D major.
Consistent use of C natural (flattened seventh) suggests Mixolydian mode.

8

Tonality of 'Mistake of Your Life'

G minor
Mixture of diatonic minor (with F#s) and modal passages (with F naturals)
Some passages 'slip' into A minor briefly
Final unresolved second inversion chord leaves cue sounding unfinished.

9

Tonality of 'Six Years Later'

Modally inflected D major.

10

Tonality of 'Never See Your Children Again'

D minor
C naturals imply transposed Aeolian mode
Dissonant and unresolved final chord leaves tonality in doubt.

11

Tonality of 'End Titles'

Modal D major
The same as in 'The Duchess.

12

Melody of 'The Duchess'

A - Built from a two bar idea, expanded by sequence in the next two bars. Auxiliary shape in bar 2 is used later in the cue. Basically a triadic idea.
B - Based around the D major triad. Descends in later phrases from the tonic to subdominant via the flattened leading note (C natural).
C - Auxiliary idea developed from bar 2. Descending stepwise idea, also using flattened seventh, based on ideas from bars 7-8.

13

Melody of 'Mistake of Your Life'

A - Rising step wise idea, initially using the first five notes of the G minor, but expanded to cover an octave in the second phrase. Expanded by transposition to A minor (up a tone).
B - Piano idea, featuring auxiliaries and a rising and falling minor sixth. Expanded by descending sequence.

14

Melody of 'Six Years Later'

Triadic ideas, decorated at time with chromatic lower auxiliary notes.

15

Melody of 'Never See Your Children Again'

Slow, rising, stepwise idea, with 'rocking' (mainly accented passing notes) throughout.

16

Melody of 'End Titles'

Uses fragments of ideas used in 'The Duchess'.

17

Rhythm, tempo and metre of 'The Duchess'

Simple Quadruple time at 116bpm, however, the note values suggest a slow, heard in minims.
Regular and clear pulse throughout.
Few syncopations in the melody, but the accompaniment does use some occasionally.
Quaver ostinato rhythm is used extensively.

18

Rhythm, tempo and metre of 'Mistake of Your Life'

Slow Simple-triple time at 69bpm, with a clear pulse from bar 19 onwards, where the first idea comes in.
The introduction is slow moving and pulse is not clear.
Repeated rhythms in both A and B give structure and unity.

19

Rhythm, tempo and metre of 'Six Years Later'

Compound duple time at 60bpm.
More lively rhythmic feel.
Traditional 'oom-cha-cha' accompaniment figures.
Some figures start on the second quaver of the bar.

20

Rhythm, tempo and metre of 'Never See Your Children Again'

Slow, gentle, simple triple time at 66bpm.
'Rocking' quavers more or less throughout the piece in one way or another.

21

Rhythm, tempo and metre of 'End Titles'

Same as 'The Duchess':
Simple Quadruple time at 116bpm, however, the note values suggest a slow, heard in minims.
Regular and clear pulse throughout.
Few syncopations in the melody, but the accompaniment does use some occasionally.
Quaver ostinato rhythm is used extensively.

22

Describe the use of the harp across all of the cues

An accompanying instrument throughout.
Quaver figures in 'The Duchess'
Plays the 'rocking quavers' at the end of 'Never See Your Children Again'
Playing arpeggio figures in 'Mistake of Your Life'.

23

Describe the use of the piano in 'Mistake of Your Life'

Plays a prominent part in the middle section, playing mid-range melody over upward arpeggio figures.

24

Describe the use of the Timpani across all of the cues

Used to provide an ostinato pedal, in particular in 'Mistake of Your Life'.

25

Describe the use of the Horns and Woodwind across all of the cues

Provide filling/doubling.
Very little use of individual woodwind or brass timbres for important melodic ideas.

26

Describe the use of texture across all of the cues

String dominated texture.
Ostinato textures used: Quaver fifth accompaniment in 'The Duchess'; Timpani texture at opening of 'Mistake of Your Life'.
Pedal Textures - tonic bass pedal in idea B of 'The Duchess'; Tonic D pedal used throughout 'Never See Your Children Again'.

27

Harmony in 'Mistake of Your Life'

I-V (minor dominant) progression (Gm-Dm) used in idea A.
Gm-Eb-F-Dm used in idea B, with the Flattened Chord VII (F). Opening uses dissonant minor ninths and elevenths.
'Unconventional' second inversion chords are used at the end.

28

Harmony in 'Never See Your Children Again'

Simultaneous seconds and thirds in the opening idea, with the ending using descending harmonies, over a tonic pedal, finishing on a chord that combines a D pedal with a G minor triad and a dissonant Db.

29

Harmony in 'The Duchess'

I-V (minor dominant) progression (D-Am) used.

30

Harmony in 'Six Years Later'

I-V (minor dominant) progression (D-Am) used.
Augmented chords used in the link section to add a bit of colour.