Appendix - Survey of Human Neuroanatomy Flashcards Preview

X NEVR2030 Komprimert Introduksjon til Nevrovitenskap > Appendix - Survey of Human Neuroanatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Appendix - Survey of Human Neuroanatomy Deck (73):
1

Why would you sometimes use caudal, and other times use inferior?

The terms anterior, posterior, superior and inferior refer tot he long axis of the body, which is straight. The terms dorsal, ventral, rostral and caudal refer to the long axis of the central nervous system. This one is different for the brainstem and spinal cord, and the forebrain.

2

How would a sagittal cut of your brain look?

It would divide the two hemispheres.

3

What is meant by a parasagittal cut of the brain?

It is a cut that divides the brain like the sagittal would (dividing the hemispheres), but it is not a medial cut.

4

How would a horisontal cut of your brain look?

It would be parallell to the ground.

5

How would a coronal cut of your brain look?

It would run from ear- to ear.

6

The CNS is usually considered to have seven basic parts. List these.

Spinal cord, medulla, pons, cerebellum, midbrain, diencephalon and the cerebrum.

7

Which of the CNS seven parts is a part of the brainstem?

The medulla, pons and midbrain.

8

Which of the CNS seven parts is a part of the forebrain?

The diencephalon and the cerebral hemisphere.

9

What major parts constitute the hindbrain?

The brainstem and cerebellum.

10

Name the four lobes of the cerebral hemispheres.

Occipital, temporal, parietal and frontal.

11

Where is the central sulcus?

Halfway between the rostral and caudal poles of the hemispheres. It divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.

12

Where is the lateral fissure?

Divides the temperal lobe inferiorly from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes.

13

Where is the parieto-occipital sulcus?

The sulcus that separates the parietal from the occipital lobe.

14

Give a name: Halfway between the rostral and caudal poles of the hemispheres. It divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.

Central sulcus.

15

Give a name: Divides the temperal lobe inferiorly from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes.

Lateral fissure.

16

Give a name: The sulcus that separates the parietal from the occipital lobe.

Parieto-occipital sulcus.

17

The regions of the spinal cord are:

Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral and Coccygeal.

18

How many nerves exit the spinal cord?

31 pairs.

19

How many cervical nerve pairs are there?

8

20

How many thoracic nerve pairs are there?

12

21

How many lumbar nerve pairs are there?

5

22

How many sacral nerve pairs are there?

5

23

How many coccygeal nerve pairs are there?

1

24

Name cranial nerves I-VI

Olfactory, Optic, Oculomotor, Trochlear, Trigeminal, Abducens.

25

Name cranial nerves VII-XII

Facial, Vestibulocochlear, Glossopgaryngeal, Vagus, Spinal accessory, Hypoglossal.

26

CN 1

Olfactory

27

CN 2

Optic

28

CN 3

Oculomotor

29

CN 4

Trochlear

30

CN 5

Trigeminal

31

CN 6

Abducens

32

CN 7

Facial

33

CN 8

Vestibulocochlear

34

CN 9

Glossopharyngeal

35

CN 10

Vagus

36

CN 11

Spinal accessory

37

CN 12

Hypoglossal

38

Name the four subdivisions of the spinal cord gray matter. (The butterfly)

1. Dorsal horn
2. Intermediate zone (lateral horn)
3. Ventral horn
4. Central zone

39

Where is the dorsal horn of the spinal cord gray matter?

The dorsal horn of the spinal cord gray matter is the horn end that is closest to the back.

40

Where is the intermediate zone (lateral horn) of the spinal cord gray matter?

The intermediate zone (lateral horn) of the spinal cord gray matter is the area that covers the mid-section of the ventral horn.

41

Where is the ventral horn of the spinal cord gray matter?

The ventral horn may be the name used for the entire ventral horn, this includes the intermediate zone. It may also be the name for the areas of the ventral horn that is not a part of the intermediate zone: rexed lamina VIII and IX.

42

Where is the central zone of the spinal cord gray matter?

The central zone is the body of the butterfly, the central gray.

43

The thalamus is mostly gray/white matter?

Gray matter.

44

The thalamus is located...

In the dorsal aspect of the diencephalon, superior to the hypothalamus.

45

Conventionally, the thalamus comprises x main parts. Which?

Three main parts. The epithalamus, the subthalamus and the dorsal thalamus.

46

Mention one feature of the epithalamus.

The pineal gland is attached to this part.

47

Mention one feature of the subthalamus.

It contains nuclei that modulate basal ganglia output.

48

Mention one feature of the dorsal thalamus.

It's the largest and most complex of the three. The dorsal thalamus is the part that is now simply called the "thalamus".

49

The nuclei of the thalamus can be divided into three areas. Which?

Medial nuclei, lateral nuclei and anterior nuclei.

50

The thalamus is usually considered a major relay station for sending sensory and motor signals to specific areas of the cerebral cortex, which the exception of ...

The olfactory cortex, which receives sensory signals directly from the olfactory bulb.

51

The thalamus is usually considered a major relay station for sending sensory and motor signals to specific areas of the cerebral cortex. These sensory and motor signals arise mainly from nuclei in which part of the thalamus?

These sensory and motor signals arise mainly from nuclei in the lateral group.

52

The thalamus conveys less well understood (than the sensory and motor signals), but nonetheless specific signals to association areas of the cerebral cortex. These arise from nuclei in which part of the thalamus?

These arise from medial and anterior nuclei and from certain nuclei in the posterior pole of the thalamus.

53

The thalamus has specific thalamocortical relations, but also diffuse projections. Where do these diffuse projections go?

They terminate diffusely in the upper layers of the cerebral cortex. These nonspecific projections of the thalamus are also the ones that synchronise paroxysmal activity in generalised seizures.

54

The specific thalamocortical relations target which layer in the cortex?

They target mostly the middle layers on the cortex.

55

What is a clinical test for the function of the olfactory nerve?

Test sense of smell with standard odor.

56

What is a clinical test for the function of the optic nerve?

Assess acuity, pupillary light reflex, and integrity of visual field.

57

What is a clinical test for the function of the oculomotor nerve?

Test eye movements, lok for ptosis and pupillary dilation. Assess pupillary light reflex.

58

What is a clinical test for the function of the trochlear nerve?

Can't look downward when eye adducted (adduction is the the eye is looking toward the nose)

59

What is a clinical test for the function of the trigeminal nerve?

Test sensations on face; test ability to clamp jaw tightly; palpate master muscles and temporal muscle. (mastication)

60

What is a clinical test for the function of the abducens nerve?

Can't look laterally.

61

What is a clinical test for the function of the facial nerve?

Test facial expression plus taste on anterior tongue.

62

What is a clinical test for the function of the vestibulocochlear nerve?

Test audition with tuning fork; test vestibular function by assessing gaze fixation during head rotation and balance during perturbation; perform caloric test.

63

What is a clinical test for the function of the glossopharyngeal nerve?

Test swallowing, pharyngeal gag reflex.

64

What is a clinical test for the function of the vagus nerve?

Test above plus hoarseness; observe uvula and posterior pharynx at rest and during phonation.

65

What is a clinical test for the function of the spinal accessory nerve?

Test sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles?

66

What is a clinical test for the function of the hypoglossal nerve?

Test deviation of tongue during protrusion (points to side of lesion) and symmetry of force when pushing tongue against cheek.

67

Which cranial nerve is responsible for the eye movements (intention, downward gaze)?

CN IV Trochlear nerve.

68

Which cranial nerve is responsible for the somatic sensations from face, mouth, cornea; and the muscles of mastication?

CN V Trigeminal nerve.

69

Which cranial nerve is responsible for the eye movements (abduction or lateral movements)?

CN VI Abducens.

70

Which cranial nerve is responsible for the sensation from posterior tongue and pharynx; taste from posterior tongue; carotid baroreceptors and chemoreceptors?

CN IX Glossopharyngeal

71

Which cranial nerve is responsible for the autonomic functions of gut, sensation form larynx and pharynx; muscles of vocal cords; swallowing.

CN X Vagus

72

Which cranial nerve is responsible for the shoulder and neck muscles?

CN XI Spinal Accessory

73

Which cranial nerve is responsible for the movements of tongue?

CN XII Hypoglossal