Arches of the foot Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Arches of the foot Deck (20):
1

What are the arches of the foot

Medial longitudinal
Lateral longitudinal
Anterior transverse

2

Functions of arches

Weight bearing
Shock absorbers
Give flexibility to allow walking and running

3

What forms the medial longitudinal arch

Calcaneus
Talus
Navicular
3 cuneiforms
Metatarsals 1-3

4

What muscles support the medial longitudinal arch

Tibialis anterior
Tibialis posterior
Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longus
Fibularis longus
Intrinsic foot muscles

5

What ligaments support the medial longitudinal arch

Plantar ligaments
Medial ligament of ankle

6

Which longitudinal arch is higher

Medial

7

What forms the lateral longitudinal arch

Calcaneus
Cuboid
Metatarsals 4-5

8

What muscles support the lateral longitudinal arch

Fibularis longus
Flexor digitorum longus
Flexor hallucis longus
Intrinsic muscles of foot

9

What ligaments support the lateral longitudinal arch

Plantar ligaments

10

What forms the transverse arch

Metatarsals
Cuboid
3 cuneiforms
(In coronal plane)

11

What muscles support the transverse arch

Fibularis longus
Tibialis posterior

12

What ligaments support the transverse arch

Plantar ligaments
Deep transverse metatarsal ligaments

13

What is pes cavus

High medial longitudinal arch
Diminished ability to shock absorb so more stress is placed on ball and heel of foot

14

Symptoms of pes cavus

Pain in foot which can radiate to ankle, leg, thigh or hip

15

Causes of pes cavus

Primary - idiopathic, hereditary, congenital e.g club foot
Secondary - neuromuscular damage e.g poliomyelitis

16

Treatment for pes cavus

Use special shoes or sole cushioning inserts
Weight loss to reduce amount of weight the foot has to bear

17

What is pes planus

Longitudinal arches have been lost or don't form (develop at 2-3) leading to abnormally flattened feet

18

Causes of pes planus

Damage to tendons involved in arches

19

Symptoms of pes planus

Usually asymptomatic
In children, foot and ankle pain
In adults, foot and ankle ache after prolonged activity

20

Treatment for pes planus

Use of arch supporting inserts for shoes

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