Gait and nerve injuries Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gait and nerve injuries Deck (15):
1

What are the phases of the gait cycle

Stance - heel strike, support and toe-off phases
Swing - leg lift and swing phases

2

What are the features of a limp/antalgic gait

Short stance phase
Gentle heel strike

3

Gaits with foot drop

High stepping
Swing out
Waddling

4

Name of classification system for peripheral nerve damage

Seddon classification

5

What are the classes of nerve injury

Neurapraxia
Axonotmesis
Neurotmesis

6

Describe Neurapraxia

Mildest injury (stretch)
Temporary block of conduction in affected axons with no loss of axon continuity
Epineurium intact
No wallerian degeneration
Full recovery

7

Describe axonotmesis

Loss of axon continuity and myelin sheath
Epineurium intact wallerian degeneration
Can recover without surgery
Time for recovery depends on distance from site of injury to target organ

8

Describe neurotmesis

Partial or complete division of axons, epinuerium, perineurium and endoneurium
Wallerian degeneration
Surgical Innervation required

9

What is meralgia paraesthetica

Entrapment of lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh
Common in pregnancy and obesity

10

What is piriformis syndrome

Compression of sciatic nerve by piriformis

11

Describe heel strike and muscles involved

Foot hits ground, heel first
Hip Flexion - iliopsoas and rectus femoris
Knee extension - quadriceps femoris
Dorsiflexion - anterior leg

12

Describe support phase and the muscles involved

Leading leg hits ground and copes with force passing through it
Knee extension - quadriceps femoris
Inversion and eversion

13

Describe toe-off phase and the muscles involved

Foot prepares to leave ground, heel first
Hip extension - hamstrings
Knee extension - quadriceps femoris
Plantar Flexion - posterior leg

14

Describe leg lift and the muscles involved

Lower limb raised in preparation for swing phase
Hip Flexion - iliopsoas and rectus femoris
Knee Flexion - hamstrings
Dorsiflexion - anterior leg

15

Describe the swing phase and the muscles involved

Raised leg is propelled forwards
Hip Flexion - iliopsoas and rectus femoris
Knee extension - quadriceps femoris
Dorsiflexion - anterior leg

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