Injuries of cervical vertebrae Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Injuries of cervical vertebrae Deck (18):
1

How do Jeffersons fractures commonly occur

Diving into shallow water
Impact against vehicle roof

2

Symptoms of Jeffersons fracture

Pain
No neurological signs

3

Consequences of Jeffersons fracture

Can damage arteries at skull base with secondary neurological consequences:
Ataxia - loss of control of body movements
Homer's syndrome - interruption of sympathetic nervous supply to 1 side of face leading to constricted pupil, drooping eyelid and decreased sweating on affected side

4

Fractures of axis

Hangman's fracture
Peg fracture

5

What is a hangmans fracture

Fracture through pedicles

6

Cause of hangmans fracture

Hyperextension of head on neck

7

Displacement in hangmans fracture

Forward displacement of C1 and body of C2

8

Risk in hangmans fracture

Fracture fragments/force may rupture spinal cord causing:
Deep unconsciousness
Respiratory failure
Cardiac failure

9

What is a peg fracture

Fracture of dens

10

Common cause of peg fracture

Road accident
Blow to back of head when falling

11

Risk in peg fracture

Avascular necrosis due to isolation of distal fragment from blood supply (high risk)
Spinal cord damage

12

Why is cervical spine prone to hyperextension/whiplash injury

Has high mobility and low stability

13

Consequence of minor whiplash injury

Damage to anterior longitudinal ligament = pain

14

Consequence of severe whiplash injury

Fracture to any cervical vertebra die to sudden compression by rapid deceleration

15

Why is there low chance of spinal cord damage in whiplash injury

Large vertebral foramen

16

Common cause of whiplash injury

Rear end traffic collision causes sudden hyperextension

17

Worst possible consequences of whiplash injury

Dislocation/subluxation of cervical vertebrae (most likely C6/7)
C2 displaced anteriorly relative to C3 leading to spinal cord damage possibly leading to:
Quadriplegia - loss of limb function
Death

18

What's the fracture of atlas

Jefferson's fracture
Fracture of anterior and posterior arches due to axial load

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