Arm and Forearm Lecture Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy 1 -- Zach H. > Arm and Forearm Lecture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Arm and Forearm Lecture Deck (84):
1

What are the curaneous nerves and veins of the anterior arm and forearm?

  • supraclavicular nerves 
  • intercostobrachial nerve (T2 intercostal nerve)
  • medial cutaneous nerve of arm (medial brachial cutaneous nerve)
  • lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm
    • (lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve) 
    • (terminal musculocutaneous nerve) 
  • cephalic vein 
  • basilic vein 
  • median cubital vein (cubital fossa) 

2

What are the cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm?

  • supraclavicular nerves 
  • superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm
    • superior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve
  • intercostobrachial nerve (T2 intercostal nerve)
  • posterior cutaneous nerve of arm (posterior brachial cutaneous nerve)
  • posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm (posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve)

3

Which cutaneous nerves of the posterior arm and forearm comes from the radial nerve? 

  • posterior cutaneous nerve of arm
    • posterior brachial cutaneous nerve 
  • posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm
    • posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve 

4

In which compartment of the arm would you find the radial nerve with its collateral arteries and vein?

posterior compartment (extensors) 

5

In which compartment of the arm would you find the median and ulnar nerves with their collateral arteries and veins? 

anterior compartment (flexors)

6

Which muscles are found in the anterior compartment (flexors) of the arm? 

  • biceps 
    • long head
    • short head
  • brachialis 
  • coracobrachialis

 

** all innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve ** 

7

Which muslces make up the posterior compartment (extensors) of the arm?

  • triceps 
    • long head
    • lateral head
    • medial head 
  • anconeus 

8

What are the braches off of the brachial artery that uplly the arm? 

  • Brachial Artery 
    • profunda brachii (deep brachial artery)
      • posterior descending brach (middle collateral)
      • anterior descending branch (radial collateral) 
    • superior ulnar collateral 
    • inferior ulnar collateral

9

Which arterial branch off of the brachial artery in the arm travels with the radial nerve in the triangular interval? 

profunda brachii (deep brachial artery) 

10

Which arterial branch off of the brachial artery travels with the ulnar nerve in the arm? 

superior ulnar collateral artery

11

Which arterial branch off of the brachial artery branches off anterior to the medial epicondyal of the humerus? 

inferior ulnar collateral artery

12

What land mark on the humerus is used to determine where the axillary artery turns into the brachial artery? 

Surgical Neck of Humerus 

13

True or False:

Branches of arteries that supply muscles of the arm are un-named arteries that come off of the named arteries in the arm. 

True 

14

True or False: 

Flexion of the elbow is one of the primary actions of the biceps brachii.

False - flexion of the elbow is NOT the primary action of the biceps brachii

15

What is the distal/proximal attachments of the long head of the biceps brachii?

Proximal Attachment:

  • supraglenoid tubercle of scapula 

Distal Attachment: 

  • radial tuberosity 
  • fascia of forearm via bicipital aponeurosis

16

What is the distal/proximal attachments of the short head of the biceps brachii?

Proximal Attachment:

  • coracoid process of scapula 

Distal Attachment: 

  • radial tuberosity 
  • fascia of forearmvia bicipital aponeurosis 

17

What are the actions, blood supply, and innervation of the biceps brachii? 

Actions:

  • supinates forearm
  • when supine will flex forearm
  • resists dislocation of shoulder (short head)

Blood Supply: 

  • brachial artery 

Innervation: 

  • musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6) 

18

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply, and innervation of the coracobrachialis? 

Proximal Attachement: 

  • coracoid process of scapula 

Distal Attachment:

  • middle 1/3 of medial humeral surface 

Actions:

  • flexes and adducts arm at shoulder joint
  • resists dislocation of should joint

Blood Supply: 

  • brachial artery 

Innervation: 

  • musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6, C7) 

19

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply, and innervation of the brachialis? 

Proximal Attachment: 

  • distal 1/2 of anterior surface of humerus 

Distal Attachment: 

  • coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna 

Actions:

  • flexes forearm at elbow joint

Blood Supply: 

  • brachial artery

Innervation: 

  • musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6) 
  • lateral portions may receive radial nerve contributions

20

Does the radial nerve innervate any of the intrinsic hand muscles? 

NO

21

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply, and innervation of the anconeus musle? 

Proximal Attachment: 

  • lateral epicondyle of humerus 

Distal Attachment: 

  • lateral surface of olecranon
  • superior part of surface of ulna

Actions: 

  • assists triceps in extension of forearm
  • stabilizes elbow joint
  • abducts ulna during pronation

Blood Supply: 

  • deep brachial artery

Innervation: 

  • radial nerve (C7, C8, T1) 

22

What is the distal/proximal attachments of the long head ofthe triceps brachii? 

Proximal Attachment:

  • infraglenoid tubercle 

Distal Attachment: 

  • proximal end of olecranon
  • fascia of forearm

23

What is the proximal/distal attachments of the lateral head of the triceps brachii? 

Proximal Attachment: 

  • posterior surface of humerus 

Distal Attachment: 

  • proximal end of olecranon
  • fascia of forearm

24

What is the proximal/distal attachments of the medial head of the triceps brachii? 

Proximal Attachment: 

  • posterior surface of humerus
    • inferior to radial groove (spiral groove)

Distal Attachment: 

  • proximal end of olecranon
  • fascia of forearm 

25

What is the action, blood supply, and innervation of the triceps brachii? 

Actions: 

  • extends forearm at elbow joint (main)
  • resists dislocation of shoulder joint (long head)

Blood Supply: 

  • deep brachial artery 

Innervation: 

  • radial nerve (C6, C7, C8) 

26

True or False: 

Much of the activity at the elbow joint involves working against strong flexion.

True 

 

*to keep from "flexing" yourself into a wheelbarrow

*triceps are constantly acting as antagonsists to the forearm flexors

27

What is the lateral boundary of the cubital fossa? 

brachioradialis 

28

What is the medial boundary of the cubital fossa? 

pronator teres 

29

What is the superior boundary of the cubital fossa? 

imaginary line between medial and lateral epicondyles of humerus 

30

What is the roof boundary of the cubital fossa? 

  • skin 
  • superficial and deep fascia 
  • bicipital aponeurosis 

31

What is the floor boundary of the cubital fossa? 

supinator and brachialis 

32

What nerves run through the cubital fossa? 

  • median nerve 
  • radial nerve
    • deep radial nerve 
    • superficial radial nerve 

33

What arteries are found in the cubital fossa? 

bifurcation of radial and ulnar arteries 

34

What vein is found in the cubital fossa? 

brachial veins (venae comitantes) 

35

What tendon and aponeurosis are found in the cubital fossa? 

  • tendon of biceps brachii
  • bicipital aponeurosis 

36

True or False: 

In the cubital fossa, the bicipital aponeurosis is deep to the brachial artery and median nerve.

false - bicipital aponeurosis is superficial to the brachial artery and median nerve

37

True or False: 

The mdian cubital vein is superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis in the cubital fossa.

True 

38

In the cubital fossa is the median nerve mediat tothe brachial artery? 

Yes 

39

Fill in the Blank:

In the cubital fossa, the _____ nerve is located between the biceps brachii and the brachialis. 

musculocutaneous 

40

Fill in the Blank:

In the cubital fossa, the _____ _____ nerve is found unerneath the brachioradialis and the _____ muscle is penetrated by the deep radial nerve.

superficial radial; supinator 

41

In the cubital fossa, what nerve is located between the brachioradialis and brachialis muscles? 

Radial Nerve 

42

True or False:

The ulnar nerve runs posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus. 

True 

43

What is found in the elbow region just posterior to the cubital region?

  • triceps and olecranon process 
  • anconeus 
  • ulnar nerve runs posterior to medial epicondyle of humerus 
  • posterior ulnar recurrent artery 

44

What arteries make up the cubital anatomosis? 

  • brachial artery -- ulnar artery 
    • superior ulnar collateral -- posterior ulnar recurrent 
    • inferior ulnar collateral -- anterior ulnar recurrent
  • deep brachial artery -- radial and interosseous arteries 
    • radial collateral artery -- radial recurrent artery 
    • middle collateral artery -- interosseous recurrent artery 

45

What is the "common flexor origin" of the distal humerus? 

medial epicondyle 

46

What is the "common extensor origin" of the distal humerus? 

lateral epicondyle 

47

Are the anterior interosseous and posterior interosseous arteries part of the cubital anstomoses?

NO

48

Draw out the cubital anastomoses! 

49

Which arteries supply blood to the anterior forearm? 

  • Anterior Forearm
    • ulnar artery 
    • common interosseous artery 
      • via anterior interosseous artery
    • radial artery 

50

Which arteries supply blood to the anterior hand? 

  • superficial palmar arch
    • ulnar artery
  • deep palmar arch
    • radial artery

51

Which arteries supply the posterior forearm and hand?

  • radial artery
    • via deep palmar arch (hand)
    • via dorsal carpal arch (hand)
  • common interosseus artery 
    • posterior interosseous artery 
  • perforating (posterior) branch of anterior interosseous artery

52

What muscles make up the superficial layer of the anterior forearm?

  • pronator teres 
  • flexor carpi radialis 
  • palmaris longus 
  • flexor carpi ulnaris 

53

Which muscle make up the intermediate layer of the anterior forearm? 

  • flexor digitorum superficialis 

54

Which muscles make up the deep layer of the anterior forearm? 

  • flexor digitorum profundus 
  • flexor pollicis longus 
  • pronator quadratus 

55

Which nerve innervates the posterior forearm? 

  • Radial Nerve 
    • superficial branch of radial nerve 
    • deep branch of radial nerve 

56

What nerve does the deep branch of the radial nerve continue as?

posterior interosseous nerve 

57

True or False: 

The brachioradialis does not act on the wrist. 

True 

58

Which muscles make up the superficial extensors of the posterior forearm? 

  • brachioradialis (flexes elbow joint)
  • extensor carpi radialis longus 
  • extensor carpi radialis brevis 
  • extensor digitorum 
  • extensor digiti minimi 
  • extensor carpi ulnaris 

59

Fill in the Blank:

All muscles of the posterior forearm are innervated by the _____ nerve via the deep branch of the radial nerve or the _____ _____ nerve.

radial; posterior interosseous 

60

Which muscles make up the deep extensors of the posterior forearm?

  • supinator 
  • extensor indicis 
  • abductor pollicis longus 
  • extensor pollicis longus 
  • extensor pollicis brevis 

61

True or False: 

All deep extensors of the posterior forearm are innervated by the deep branch ofthe radial nerve, or the posterior interosseous nerve, which is a continuation of this same nerve.

True 

62

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the pronator teres? 

Proximal Attachment: 

  • coronoid process of ulna

Distal Attachment: 

  • middle of lateral surface of radius

Actions:

  • pronates and flexes forearm at elbow 

Innervation: 

  • median nerve 

Blood Supply:

  • ulnar artery 
  • anterior recurrent ulnar artery

63

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the flexor carpi radialis? 

Proximal Attachment: 

  • medial epicondyle of humerus ("common flexor origin")

Distal Attachment:

  • base of 2nd metacarpal 

Actions:

  • flexes and abducts hand at wrist

Innervation:

  • median nerve 

Blood Supply:

  • ulnar artery 

64

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the palmaris longus? 

Proximal Attachment: 

  • medial epicondyle of humerus 

Distal Attachment: 

  • flexor retinaculum
    • continuous with palmar aponeurosis

Actions: 

  • flexes hand at wrist
  • tenses palmar aponeurosis 

Innervation: 

  • median nerve 

Blood Supply: 

  • ulnar artery

 

**it can be absent in people **

65

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the flexor carpi ulnaris?

Proximal Attachment:

  • medial epicondyle of humerus 

Distal Attachment: 

  • pisiform
  • hook of hamate
  • 5th metacarpal

Actions: 

  • flexes and adducts hand at wrist

Innervation: 

  • ulnar nerve 

Blood Supply:

  • ulnar artery 

66

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the flexor digitorum superficialis? 

Proximal Attachment: 

  • medial epicondyle of humerus
  • superior 1/2 of anterior border of radius

Distal Attachment: 

  • shafts of middle phalanges of medial 4 digits 

Actions: 

  • flexes middle phalanges at proximal interphalangeal joint
  • flexes proximal phalanges at metacarpophalangeal joints 

Innervation:

  • median nerve 

Blood Supply:

  • ulnar artery 

67

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the flexor digitorum profundus? 

Proximal Attachment:

  • proximal 3/4 of medial and anterior surfaces of ulna and interosseous membrane

Distal Attachment: 

  • bases of distal phalanges of 2nd-5th fingers

Actions:

  • flexes distal phalanges at interphalangeal joints (power grip)

Innervation:

  • ulnar nerve
  • median nerve
    • anterior interosseous nerve is branch from median nerve 

Blood Supply: 

  • ulnar artery
  • anterior interosseous arteries 

68

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the flexor pollicis longus?

Proximal Attachment: 

  • anterior suface of radius and interosseous membrane

Distal Attachment: 

  • base of distal phalanx of thumb

Actions:

  • flexes thumb

Innervation:

  • median nerve via anterior interosseous nerve 

Blood Supply:

  • anterior interosseous artery 

69

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the pronator quadratus? 

Proximal Attachment: 

  • distal 1/4 of anterior surface of ulna

Distal Attachments:

  • distal 1/4 of anterior surface of radius

Actions: 

  • pronates forearm
  • deep fibers bind radius and ulna together

Innervation: 

  • median nerve via anterior interosseous nerve

Blood Supply: 

  • anterior interosseous artery 

70

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the brachioradialis? 

Proximal Attachment:

  • proximal 2/3 of supraepicondylar ridge of humerus 

Distal Attachment:

  • distal radius
    • proximal to styloid process 

Actions: 

  • flexes forearm when it is pronated (about midprone position)

Innervation:

  • radial nerve 

Blood Supply: 

  • radial recurrent artery 

71

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the extensor carpi radialis longus? 

 

Proximal Attachment:

  • lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus 

Distal Attachment: 

  • dorsal aspect of base of 2nd metacarpal

Actions:

  • extend and abduct hand at wrist

Innervation:

  • radial nerve 

Blood Supply:

  • radial artery 

72

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the extensor carpi radialis brevis?

Proximal Attachment: 

  • lateral epicondyle of humerus 

Distal Attachment:

  • dorsal aspect of base of 3rd metacarpal

Actions: 

  • extend and abduct hand at wrist

Innervation: 

  • deep branch of radial nerve 

Blood Supply:

  • radial artery 

73

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the extensor digitorum?

Proximal Attachment:

  • lateral epicondyle of humerus

Distal Attachment:

  • extensor expansions of medial 4 fingers 

Actions:

  • extends medial 4 fingers at metacarpophalangeal joint
  • and somewhat at interphalageal joints 

Innervation: 

  • posterior interosseous nerve

Blood Supply:

  • interosseous recurrent and posterior interosseous arteries 

74

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the extensor digiti minimi?

Proximal Attachment: 

  • lateral epicondyle of humerus 

Distal Attachment: 

  • extensor expansion of 5th finger

Actions: 

  • extends 5th finger at metacarpophalangeal join and secondarily at interphlangeal joints

Innervation:

  • posterior interosseous nerve 

Blood Supply: 

  • interosseous recurrent artery 

75

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the extensor carpi ulnaris? 

Proximal Attachment:

  • lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna

Distal Attachment:

  • dorsal aspect of base to 5th metacarpal

Actions:

  • extends and adducts hand at wrist 

Innervation: 

  • posterior interosseous nerve 

Blood Supply:

  • ulnar artery

76

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the supinator?

Proximal Attachment:

  • lateral epicondyle of humerus
  • radial collateral and anular ligaments
  • ulnar crest]

Distal Attachment:

  • proximal 1/3 of radius (nearly all surfaces, as it wraps around the bone)

Action:

  • supinates forearm
    • bringing radius back to anatomical position

Innervation: 

  • deep branch of radial nerve 

Blood Supply: 

  • recurrent interosseous artery

77

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the extensor indicis? 

Proximal Attachment: 

  • posterior surface of distal 1/3 of ulna and interosseous membrane

Distal Attachment: 

  • extensor expansion of 2nd finger

Actions:

  • independent extension of 2nd finger, but also helps with extension of wrist

Innervation: 

  • posterior interosseous nerve 
    • continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve 

Blood Supply: 

  • posterior interosseous artery 

78

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the abductor pllicis longus?

Proximal Attachment: 

  • posterior surface of proximal 1/2 of ulna and radius
  • interosseous membrane 

Distal Attachment: 

  • base of 1st metacarpal

Actions:

  • abducts thumb and extends it at carpometacarpal joint

Innervation:

  • posterior interosseous nerve 
    • continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve)

Blood Supply: 

  • posterior interosseous artery 

79

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the extensor pollicis brevis? 

Proximal Attachment:

  • posterior surface of distal 1/3 of radius 
  • interosseous membrane

Distal Attachment:

  • dorsal aspect of proximal phalanx of thumb

Actions: 

  • extends proximal phalanx of thumb at its metacarpophalangeal joint
  • also extends carpometacarpal joint

Innervation: 

  • posterior interosseous nerve 

Blood Supply: 

  • posterior interosseous artery 

80

What is the proximal/distal attachments, actions, blood supply and innervation of the extensor pollicis longus?

Proximal Attachment: 

  • posterior surface of middle 1/3 of ulna
  • interosseous membrane

Distal Attachment: 

  • dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of thumb

Actions:

  • extends distal phalanx of thumb at its interphalangeal joint
  • extends the metacarpophalangeal and carpometacarpal joint

Innervation :

  • posterior interosseous nerve 

Blood Supply:

  • posterior interosseous artery 

81

What artery and muscles are located in the anatomical snuff box?

  • radial artery
  • extensor pollicis longus 
  • extensor pollicis brevis 
  • abductor pollicis longus 

82

What is a sign that a patient with present with the radial nerve is injured by a fracture to the humeral shaft?

wrist-drop

83

Wrist-Drop

Full or partial paralysis of the extensors of the wrist and fingers results in the inability to extend and thus the flexors "take-over" and the wrist assumes a partially flexed position. 

Radial Nerve Injury

84