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Human Anatomy 1 -- Zach H. > Back Lecture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Back Lecture Deck (79):
1

What do intrinsic muscles of the back do and where is their innervation from?

Support upright posture and allow movements of the vertebral column. They are also involved in proprioception and are innervated by the dorsal rami of spinal nerves.

2

Are deep/intrinsic muscles of the back epaxial or hypaxial?

Epaxial

3

Are superficial/extrinsic muscles of the back epaxial or hypaxial?

Hypaxial

4

Is the erector spinae muscle group and transversospinalis epaxial or hypaxial muscles?

Epaxial - they're deep back muscles

5

True or False: Epaxial, superficial back muscles move the shoulder and upper extremity.

False - Hypaxial, superficial back muscles move the shoulder and upper extremity.

6

Name the 5 superficial hypaxial muscle of the back region.

- trapezius - latissimus dorsi - levator scapulae - rhomboid major - rhomboid minor

7

What are the superficial hypaxial muscles of the back region also known as?

posterior axioappendicaular muscles - they connect the axial skeleton to appendicular skeleton. - they're posterior muscles that attach the scapula and humerus to the axial skeleton, and/or the scapula to the humerus

8

Where in the spinal cord does the rootlets of the accessory nerve emerge from?

C1-C5

9

What do extrinsic muscles of the back do and where does their innervation come from?

Move the limbs and are innervated by CN 11 (accessory nerve) or branches of the brachial plexus (ventral rami of spinal nerves).

10

What is the proximal and distal attachment of the trapezius? 

Proximal Attachment (Origin)

  • external occipital protuberance of skull
  • nuchal ligament
  • spinous processes of C7-T12 vertebrae 

Distal Attachment (Insertion)

  • lateral third of clavicle (anterior)
  • acromion
  • spine of scapula 

11

What are the action of the trapezius? 

  • elevates scapula 
  • depresses scapula 
  • retracts scapula 
  • rotates glenoid fossa superiorly

12

What is the motor and sensory innervation to the trapezius? 

  • motor = accessory nerve 
  • sensory = ventral rami of C3 and C4 

13

Does the trapezius attach anywhere on the anterior side of the body? 

Yes, to the lateral 1/3 of the clavicle on the anterior side. 

14

Which muscles function to produce upward rotation of the scapula (superior rotation of glenoid)?

  1. upper and lower trapezius 
  2. serratus anterior 

15

What are the proximal and distal attachments of the latissimus dorsi? 

Proximal Attachment

  • spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae
  • thoracolumbar fascia 
  • iliac crest 
  • inferior 3 ribs 

Distal Attachment

  • floor of intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove) of humerus 

16

What are the actions of the latissimus dorsi?

  • extends humerus 
  • adducts humerus 
  • medially rotates humerus
  • raises torso towards arms during climbing

17

What nerve innervates the latissimus dorsi? 

thoracodorsal nerve 

18

What are the proximal and distal attachment sites for the rhomboid major and minor?

Proximal Attachment

  • R. Major: 
    • spinous processes of T2-T5
  • R. Minor:
    • nuchal ligament
    • spinous processes of C7 and T1

Distal Attachment

  • R. Major:
    • medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle
  • R. Minor:
    • medial end of scapular spine

19

What are the actions of the rhomboid major and minor?

  • BOTH retract, elevate, and rotate scapula downward
  • fix scapula to thoracic wall 

20

Which nerve innervates both the rhomboid major and minor?

dorsal scapular nerve 

21

What are the proximal and distal attachments for the levator scapulae?

Proximal Attachment

  • posterior tubercles of transverse processes of first 4 cervical vertebrae

Distal Attachment

  • medial border of scapula
  • superior part of scapular spine

22

What are the actions of the levator scapulae? 

  • elevates scapula
  • tilts glenoid fossa inferiorly by rotating scapula 
    • downward rotation

23

Which nerves innervate the levator scapulae?

  • dorsal scapular nerve 
  • motor = ventral rami of C3 and C4 spinal nerves 

24

Which muscles work together to elevate the scapula? 

  1. Trapezius (descending part)
  2. Levator Scapulae 
  3. Rhomboids (minor and major)

25

Which muscles work together to protract the scapula?

  • Serratus anterior 
  • Pectoralis major 
  • Pectoralis minor

26

Which muscles work together to retract the scapula?

  • Trapezius (middle part)
  • Rhomboids (major and minor)
  • Latissimus dorsi

27

Which muscles function together to upward rotate the scapula? 

  • Trapezius (descending part)
  • Trapezius (ascending part)
  • Serratus anterior (inferior part)

28

Which muscles work together to downward rotate the scapula? 

  • Gravity
  • Levator scapulae 
  • Rhomboids (major and minor)
  • Latissimus dorsi 
  • Pectoralis minor
  • Pectoralis major (inferior sternocostal head)

29

Which muscles work together to depress the scapula? 

  • Gravity
  • Pectoralis major (inferior sternocostal head)
  • Latissimus dorsi 
  • Trapezius (ascending part)
  • Serratus anterior (inferior part)
  • Pectoralis minor

30

What are the proximal and distal attachments for the serratus posterior superior? Also, what is the action of the serratus posterior superior? Also, what is the innervation for the serratus posterior superior?

Proximal Attachment:

  • nuchal ligament
  • spinous processes of C7-T3 vertebrae 

Distal Attachment:

  • superior border of ribs 2-4

Actions:

  • elevates ribs 

Innervation:

  • T2-T5 intercostal nerves (ventral rami)

31

What is the proximal and distal attachments for the serratus posterior inferior? Also, what are the actions and innervation of the serratus posterior inferior?

Proximal Attachments:

  • spinous processes of T11-L2 vertebrae 

Distal Attachment:

  • inferior borders of ribs 8-12
    • near their angles 

Action:

  • depress ribs 

Innervation:

  • intercostal nerves 
  • subcostal nerve (ventral rami)

32

What type of muscles are innervated by dorsal vami of spinal nerves?

Epaxial Muscles 

33

What type of muscles are innervated by ventral rami of spinal nerves?

Hypaxial 

34

What 3 muscles make up the erector spinae group?

  1. Spinalis (most medial)
  2. Longissimus 
  3. Iliocostalis (most lateral)

35

Which 3 muscles make up the transversospinalis group of epaxial back muscles?

  1. Rotatores (most deep)
  2. Multifidus 
  3. Semispinalis (most superficial)

36

37

Where do the splenius cervicis and splenius capitis attach distally and proximally?

Proximal (origin) Attachment:

  • BOTH arise from nuchal ligament (ligamentum nuchae) 
  • BOTH spinous processes of T1-T6 vertebrae

Distal (insertion) Attachment:

  • Splenius cervicis
    • tubercles of transverse processes of C1-C4 vertebrae
  • Splenius capitis
    • lateral parts of mastoid processes 
    • superior nuchal line

38

What are the actions of the splenius cervicis and splenius capitis?

  • Bilaterally:
    • extend head and neck
  • Unilaterally
    • laterally flex neck 
    • rotate head to side of contracting muscle

39

What is the innervation of the splenius cervicis splenius capitis? 

dorsal rami of spinal nerves 

40

What are the actions of the erectro spinae group? Also, what innervates the muscles of the erector spinae group?

Actions:

  • Bilaterally:
    • extend vertebral column and head
  • Unilaterally:
    • laterally flex certebral column 

Innervation:

  • dorsal rami of spinal nerves 

41

True or False:

The iliocostalis does not have any cranial attachments.

True 

42

Which 3 muscles make up the iliocostalis group?

  1. iliocostalis cervicis 
  2. iliocostalis thoracis 
  3. iliocostalis lumborum

43

What is the origin forthe iliocostalis muscles?

Origin:

  • broad common tendon attaches to:
    • iliac crest
    • posterior part of sacrum
    • sacroiliac ligaments 
    • sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes
    • supraspinous ligament

44

Where does the iliocostalis lumborum insert?

ribs 6-12

45

Where does the iliocostalis thoracis insert?

ribs 1-6

46

Where does the iliocostalis cervicis insert?

  • ribs 1-6
  • posterior tubercles of transverse processes of cervical vertebrae 4-6

47

Which 3 muslces make up the longissimus group?

  1. longissimus capitis 
  2. longissimus cervicis 
  3. longissimus thoracis 

48

True or False:

The iliocostalis and longissimus thoracis muscle groups have a different muscle origin.

False - they have the same origin

49

Where is the insertion of the longissimus thoracis?

Insertion:

  • ribs
  • adjacent transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae

50

Where is the origin and insertion of the longissimus cervicis?

Origin:

  • transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

Insertion:

  • transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

51

Where is the origin and insertion for the longissimus capitis?

Origin:

  • transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

Insertion:

  • mastoid proceses 

52

Fill in the Blank:

Both the longissimus ______ and _______ originate on the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae.

cervicis and capitis 

 

*but not the thoracis 

53

Which 3 muscles make up the spinalis group?

  1. spinalis thoracis 
  2. spinalis cervicis 
  3. spinalis capitis 

54

Where does the spinalis thoracis originate at?

On spinous processes and insert on spinous processes superior to thme. 

 

55

The spinalis cervicis and capitis can be difficult to differentiate, and capitis can be missing entirely. 

Slides didn't have origin and insertion for the spinalis cervicis and capitis. 

56

Which 3 muscles make up the deep transversospinalis group?

  1. semispinalis 
  2. rotatores 
  3. multifidus 

57

What innervates the deep transversospinalis group?

dorsal rami of spinal nerves 

58

What is the action of the semispinalis thoracis, cervicis, and capitis?

Action:

  • extend head
  • extend thoracic 
  • extend cervical regions
  • rotates them contralaterally 

59

Semispinalis cervicis

  • cervical transverse processes to spinous processes of 2nd cervical vertebra

60

Semispinalis capitis 

  • superficial to cervicis 
  • transverse processes of 1st-6th thoracic vertebrae to nuchal line

61

Semispinalis thoracis 

  • transverse to spinous processes in thoracic region

62

Which muscle is found just deep to splenus capitis?

semispinalis capitis 

63

What is the action of multifidus?

Action:

  • stabilizes vertebrae during localized movements of vertebral column 

64

What is the insertion and origin of the multifidus?

Origin

  • transverse processes 

Inserts

  • on spinous processes 

65

In which region is the multifidus easiest to see and locate?

Lumbar Region 

66

What is the action of the multifidus? 

Action

  • stabilizes vertebrae during locatlized movements of vertebral column 

67

What are the two muscles that make up the rotatores?

  • brevis 
  • longus 

68

How many intervertebrl joints does the brevis of rotatores span? 

spans one intervertebral joint

69

How many intervertebral joints does the longus of the rotatores span? 

spans 2 intervertebral joints 

70

Is which region is the rotatores easist to locate and see?

easiest to see in thoracic region

71

What are the actions of the rotatores?

Action:

  • extend head
  • extend thoracic 
  • extend cervical 
  • rotates them contralaterally 

72

What are the 3 muscles that make up the segmental muscles? 

  1. interspinales 
  2. intertransversari 
  3. levator costarum 

73

What innervates the interspinales, segmental muscle?

dorsal rami of spinal nerves 

74

What is the innervation of the intertransversari, segmental muscle? 

dorsal and ventral rami of spinal nerves 

75

Which nerve innervates the levator costarum, segmental muscle? 

dorsal rami of C8-T11 spinal nerves 

76

Which muscles overlay:

  • rectus capitis posterior major
  • rectus capitis posterior minor 
  • obliquus capitis superior 
    • superior oblique capitis
  • obliquus capitis inferior 
    • inferior oblique capitis 

 

Splenius and Semispinalis capitis 

77

What do the muscles in the suboccipital region fuction to do and what are they innervated by? 

  • mainly postural muscles 
  • also aid in extension and rotation at atlantoaxial joint

 

Inneration:

  • suboccipital nerve (dorsal rami of C1) 

78

What nerves and vessels are found in the suboccipital region? 

  • vertebral artery 
  • suboccipital nerve 
    • dorsal ramus of C1
    • between skull and atlas 
    • motor to all triangle muscles 
  • greater occipital nerve 
    • dorsal ramus of C2
    • between atlas and axis 
    • sensory fibers ONLY
  • posterior atlanto-occipital membrane (continuous with ligamentum flava)

79