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Flashcards in Articulation Deck (30)
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1

A baseline is a
A. measure of the level of articulatory performance before intervention
B. measure of behavioral changes during treatment
C. measure of generalization of learning
D. All of the above

A baseline is a measure of the level of articulatory performance before intervention.

2

Shaping
A. is a remedial technique requiring the client to match minimal pairs of words
B. is a frequently used technique for improving sound perception and discrimination
C. is a teaching method that utilizes successive approximation to establish correct production
D. All of the above

C. is a teaching method that utilizes successive approximation to establish correct production

3

Shaping
A. is a remedial technique requiring the client to match minimal pairs of words
B. is a frequently used technique for improving sound perception and discrimination
C. is a teaching method that utilizes successive approximation to establish correct production
D. All of the above

C. is a teaching method that utilizes successive approximation to establish correct production

4

Generalization
A. refers to the principle that learning a behavior in a particular environment often carries over to untrained behaviors or contexts
B. occurs automatically, and it's therefore out of the control of the clinician
C. precedes the establishment phase of remediation
D. all of the above

A. refers to the principle that learning a behavior in a particular environment often carries over to untrained behaviors or contexts

5

When assessing a child from a bilingual family:
A. always test in both languages
B. use an English test that has been translated into the child's first language
C. test only in English because that is the language of instruction at school
D. none of the above

A. always test in both languages

6

Regarding intervention for bilingual children:
A. research confirms that treatment in one language will generalize to the other language
B. treatment in one language may or may not generalize to the other language
C. treatment in one language does not generalize to the other languages
D. none of the above

B. treatment in one language may or may not generalize to the other language

7

Which of the following statements is true for bilingual children with phonological disorder:
A. always treat in one language only so there will not be confusion
B. put major emphasis on goals for English because that is what they ultimately need to speak
C. select goals for both languages
D. none of the above

C. select goals for both languages

8

Substitution of p/f, t/s, and t/ch is an example of:
A. fricative assimilation
B. stopping
C. fronting

B. stopping

9

Treatment based phonological processes:
A. is designed to efficiently improve phonetic aspects of client's speech
B. typically targets a 'least knowledge' sound
C. facilitates reduction of unwanted patterns
D. all of the above

C. facilitates reduction of unwanted patterns

10

Motor approaches to articulation remediation include:
A. van riper's traditional approach
B. winitz' perceptual training
C. McCabe and Bradley's Multiple Phoneme approach
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

11

A child who produces no fricatives
A. has an inventory constraint for fricatives
B. demonstrates the phonological process of stopping
C. has a position constraint for fricatives
D. all of the above

A. has an inventory constraint for fricatives

12

Inventory constraint is an example of:
A. a static phonological rule
B. a dynamic phonological rule
C. an example of neutralization

A. a static phonological rule

13

When selecting a phonological process as a target for intervention:
A. choose a pattern for which the client is not stimulable
B. choose a pattern which is earliest to disappear
C. choose a pattern which affects many speech sounds
D. both b and c

D. both b and c

14

A 'developmental' approach to target selection is:
A. is appropriate for a child with dysarthria
B. is appropriate any time a motor approach to therapy is used
C. is appropriate when targeting phonological processes
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

15

The best practices for treatment of Childhood Apraxia of Speech
A. is the same as the traditional motor approach
B. often includes a core vocabulary selected individually for the client
C. employs minimal pairs to teach that different sounds change the meaning
D. both b and c

B. often includes a core vocabulary selected individually for the client

16

When selecting targets for remediation
A. always select the earliest developing sound and try to select a sound that is stimulable
B. sometimes select the earliest developing sound and one that is stimulable
C. never select the earliest developing sound or a sound that is stimulable
D. none of the above

B. sometimes select the earliest developing sound and one that is stimulable

17

The suggestion to plan for generalization when selecting targets for remediation is based on the assumption(s) that
A. children with phonological disorders are active learners
B. each child has a unique phonological system
C. there are both individual differences and universal similarities in the learning patterns of children
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

18

The initial phase of a motoric approach to intervention is:
A. to stabilize and retain the target behavior(s)
B. to facilitate transfer to other linguistic contexts
C. to elicit a target behavior and then stabilize it at a voluntary level
D. none of the above

C. to elicit a target behavior and then stabilize it at a voluntary level

19

Linguistic approaches to remediation include
A. William's Multiple Oppositions approach
B. Hodson & Paden's Cycles approach
C. Minimal Pair Contrast Therapy
D. All of the above

D. All of the above

20

Phonological processes describe
A. syllable structure change
B. substitution patterns
C. deletion patterns
D. all of the above

all of the above

21

Examples of correspondence/relational analyses include:
A. sound-by-sound analysis
B. nonlinear phonological analysis
C. phonological process analysis
D. both a and C
E. all of the above

d. both a and c

22

When a client has a motor-based (phonetic) problem:
A. the clinician should select a therapy target for which the client is not stimulable
B. the clinician should select a therapy target which represents an inventory constraint for the client
C. the clinician should select an early developing sound
D. none of the above

C. the clinician should select an early developing sound

23

Which of the following statements could result from an independent analysis:
A. the client demonstrates final consonant deletion
B. the client only produces /f/ in the post-vocalic position

B. the client only produces /f/ in the post-vocalic position

24

A child's production
{tu] for 'school' can be described by which of the following phonological processes?
A. assimilation
B. cluster reduction
C. gliding
d. all of the above

B. cluster reduction

25

The phonetic placement approach is employed when:
A. the client cannot produce the sound through imitation
B. the client can imitate the sound but does not use it in words
C. the client can use the target during therapy sessions and generalization to other settings is the goal
D. all the above

A. the client cannot produce the sound through imitation

26

Given these productions, which statement below are TRUE:

'tree [ti]
'stove' [toub]
'key' [ti]
'bath' [baet]
'deep' [ti]

A. this child demonstrates a phonological delay
B. this child demonstrates homonomy
C. this child demonstrates gliding
d. all of the above

B. this child demonstrates homonomy

27

The literature agrees that when selecting targets for remediation:
A. the clinician should always select the earliest-developing speech sounds
B. the clinician would always try to select error sounds that are already in teh child's phonetic inventory
c. the clinician should always select sounds that will be the easiest for the client to learn
d. none of the above

d. none of the above

28

A position constraint:
A. indicates that the client cannot produce the target
b. describes one aspect of the distribution of the target sound
c. indicates no phonetic ability for the target sound
d. all of the above

b. describes one aspect of the distribution of the target sound

29

A child's phonetic inventory:
A. is difficult to compute because the clinician must determine which sounds are phonemes and which are allophones
B. includes only sounds that are used correctly compared to the adult target
c. is useful for target selection because it is an indication of the child's phonetic capability
d. all of the above.

c. is useful for target selection because it is an indication of the child's phonetic capability

30

When measuring learning performance:
A. it is never necessary to transcribe the client's productions.
B. the clinician quantifies the client's performance for each therapy session
C. the clinician would never want to give the client a model
d. all of the above

B. the clinician quantifies the client's performance for each therapy session