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Flashcards in articulations and movement Deck (18):

what is the anatomical position

- standardised method of observing body
- standing upright, facing observer, eyes facing forward, feet flat on floor, arms at sides, palms turned forward (thumbs pointing upwards)


describe the 8 anatomical terms used when describing movement / the body

- proximal: towards the trunk
- distal: away from the trunk
- superior: towards the head (top / cranial)
- inferior: away from the head (bottom / caudal)
- posterior / dorsal: towards the back
- anterior / ventral / rostral: towards the front
- medial: towards the middle
- lateral: away from the midline


what are the body planes and sections

- sagittal (mid sagittal or para sagittal)
- frontal (coronal, anterior / posterior)
- transverse (cross section, horizontal, inferior / superior
- section: surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures, named according to plane cut was made on


what is the difference between planes and axis

- plane: surface where movement occurs
- axis: line around which movement occurs (frontal, sagittal and vertical)
- axis = perpendicular to plane


what are the examples of movement in the body (7)

- adduction / abduction: movement in frontal plane about sagittal axis
- flexion / extension: sagittal plane about frontal axis
- rotation: transverse plane about vertical axis, bone revolves around own longitudinal axis
- circumduction: distal end of body part in a circle, flexion, extension, adduction and abduction
- inversion / eversion: foot movement
- dorsi / plantar flexion: walking, movement of foot
- supination / pronation: forarm, supination (palm = anteriorly), pronation (palm = posteriorly X shape)


what is a ligament and a strain

- joins bone to bone
- acts as a rope connected at their ends
- comprised of collagen, not elastic, only stretches 6% of length
- usually across a joint
- limits movement by tightening
- prevent extremities of movement, guide movements
- strain: over stretched / torn, soft tissue injury, ligament and joint capsule


what are the structural classification of joints

- fibrous: immovable / slightly movable
- cartilaginous: slightly movable
- synovial: freely movable , synovial fluid = lubrication


what are the movement classification of joints

- synarthrosis: little or no movement
- amphiarthrosis: slightly movable
- diarthrosis: freely movable


what is a fibrous joint and types of fibrous joints

- fibrotic tissue, collagen fibres
- sutures: bind skull bones together, ossify and fuse in middle age, expansion of cranium following growth of brain, craniosyntosis (fusion of bone skulls at birth = abnormal, abnormalities), serrate, lap and plane
- gomphoses: 'peg in socket', tooth in socket, short periodontal ligament (collagen fibres attach to tooth and jawbone), slight movement when chewing
- syndesmosis: bones bound by ligament (interosseous membrane), most movable of fibrous, movement depends on length of fibre


what is a cartilaginous joint and types of cartilaginous joints

- synchondrosis: connecting tissue is hyaline cartilage, epiphyseal plate / rib attachment to sternum
- symphysis: ends of articulating bones = covered in hyaline cartilage / fibrotic tissue, disc of fibrocartilage connects two bones, slight movement (ability to be compressed / expand)
- pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs


what is a synovial joint

- large range of motions, articular cartilage covers ends of bones (reduce friction, absorb shock), surfaces = enclosed by joint capsule
- synovial fluid: membrane secretes nutrient rich fluid, lubricates


what is a hinge joint (synovial)

- convex surface of one bone fits concave surface of another
- uniaxial (knee, elbow, interphalangeal joints)
- flexion, extension, hypertension (beyond anatomical position


what is a pivot joint (synovial)

- rounded surface articulates with ring of second bone
- monoaxial (rotation around longitudinal axis)
- atlantoaxial ('no')
- proximal end of radioulnar joint (supination / pronation
- atlas and axis


what is a condyloid / ellipsoidal joint (synovial)

- oval shape fits into oval depression
- biaxial (flexion extension abduction adduction)
- wrist, metacarpals, phalanges


what is a saddle joint (synovial)

- saddle shaped bone and person sitting on saddle
- multi axial (circumduction, opposition - touch all other fingers)
- thumb


what is a plane joint (synovial)

- side to side movement
- rotation prevented by ligaments
- inter carpal / inter tarsal


what is a ball and socket joint (synovial)

- ball fitting into a cup like depression
- multi axial (flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation)
- shoulder and hip


what are some joint disorders / types of arthritis

- pain, stiffness, swelling
- osteoarthritis: common, hyaline cartilage on articular surface degenerates, bones grind, affects weight bearing joints (hip knee vertebrae), limited movement
- rheumatoid arthritis: autoimmune, synovial membrane = inflamed, excess of liquid, affects wrists, fingers, arms and legs