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Flashcards in appendicular skeleton Deck (25):

what is the appendicular skeleton

- bones of upper and lower limbs (30 bones = arm)
- pectoral and pelvic girdles


what is the pectoral girdle

- shoulder (clavicles, scapula, surrounding muscles)
- attachment site for muscles
- sternoclavicular: synovial saddle, biaxial
- acromioclavicular: synovial plane (immobile)
- glenohumeral: ball and socket, synovial, many ligaments (coracohumeral - support upper limb weight and glenohumeral (3) - weak anterior reinforcements, stability), tendon of biceps brachii (runs inside joint, stability of head of humerus), bursa (reduce friction)
- dislocation: humerus falls forward (traction / counter traction)


what is the clavicle

- collar bone, weak bone, superficial
- flattened acromial ends (articulate with scapula)
- cone shape sternal end (medial) articulates with sternum
- brace, holds scapula and arm laterally
- fracture: children / elderly, middle third, indirect injury, comminuted fracture (broke in more than 3 places), sling / bandage, surgery if open


what is the scapula

- dorsal surface of rib cage ( between ribs 2-7)
- flat triangular with three borders (superior, medial and lateral)
- three angles (inferior, lateral and superior)
- many fossa, main (infraspinous, supraspinous and subscapular)


what are the rotator cuff muscles

- subscapularis: rotates humerus medially (endorotation)
- supraspinatus (abducts humerus)
- infraspinatus (laterally rotates and adducts humerus)
- teres minor: laterally rotates and adducts humerus


what is the humerus

- largest, longest bone of upper limb
- articulates superiorly with glenoid cavity of scapula
- articulates inferiorly with radius and ulna


what is the elbow joint

- synovial hinge, monoaxial
- formed by trochlea notch of ulna and trochlea of humerus
- annular ligament: surrounds head of radius (supination / pronation)
- two capsular: ligaments restrict side to side movement (ulnar / radial collateral ligament)


what are the bones of the forearm

- ulna: medial bone, major portion of elbow
- radius: lateral bone, head articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna
- interosseous membrane: fibrous, allows pronation / super nation, connects the two along entire arm length
- joints: proximal and distal radioulnar joints


what are the bones of the wrist / hand

- proximal: scaphoid, lunate, truiqetrum, pisiform
- distal: trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate
- metacarpal: 1-5 from the thumb (form palm)
- phalanges: each finger (except thumb) has 3 phalanges = 14 (distal, middle and proximal), fingers = 1-5 beginning with thumb (pollex)
- thumb has no middle phalanx


fractures of the wrist / hand

- pisiform: fall on outstretched hand, wrist in extension, avulsion / linear fracture
- scaphoid: 60-70% of hand fractures, fall onto outstretch hand


types of dislocations

- cause: pain, swelling, inflammation, inability to move (misalignment)
- luxation / dislocation: bones forced out of alignment, sprains
- subluxation: partial dislocation of joint, common in spine following rotational trauma


what is / what are the types of fractures

- when a force exerted on bone is stronger / more flexible than it can structurally withstand
- depend on: degree / direction of force, bone involved and age of individual
- common: wrist, ankle, hip and clavicle
- simple: closed, no broken skin, easily healed
- compound: open, broken skin, surgery, increased risk of infection
- incomplete: only one side of bone is broken, hairline (superficial fracture, surface of bone, overuse, runners foot) and greenstick (children, flexible bones)
- complete: both sides broken, complete split


pelvic vs pectoral girdle

- pelvic: more strength than mobility, bigger than pectoral
- pectoral: dot not articulate with vertebrae, provides mobility than strength (weak)


what is the pelvic girdle

- hip bones (coxal)
- three fused bones (ileum, ischium and pubis)
- fuse during puberty
- sacrum / coccyx: 5 sacral vertebrae and 3-5 coccyx vertebrae
- joined posteriorly forming sacroiliac joints


what are the pelvic bones

- ileum: superior ala (wing), acetabulum, iliac crest (superior), sciatic notch
- ischium: inferior / posterior part of hip bone, ischial tuberosity (most prominent)
- pubis: inferior / anterior portion, superior / inferior ramus and body
- pelvic brim: line from sacral promontory to upper pubic symphysis, above (false pelvis, abdominal cavity) and below (true pelvis, pelvic cavity, bowel, urinary / reproductive system)


malve vs female pelvis

- M: tilted less forward, smaller and heart shaped, pubic arch = <90˚, support of heavier build / muscles
- F: adapted for childbearing, true pelvis = birth canal, broad, shallow, pubic arch = >90˚


what is the hip / coxal joint

- ball and socket, increased motion, limited by deep socket, more stable than shoulder (deep head of femur fits entirely inside)
- head of femur articulates with acetabulum
- reinforced by ligaments (illiofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral, ligamentum teres - acetabulum to inside femur head, nutrients)


injuries / arthroplasty of the hip

- dislocations = mostly posterior, huge amount of force to dislodge femur, 99% = due to car accidents
- arthroplasty: surgery to relieve pain and restore motion, realign / reconstruct joint, resection (increase ROM), surgical interposition reconstruction (prosthetic, metal on metal = metallosis = accumulation of metallic debris in soft tissue, inflammation, changes in tissue and genetic instability_


what is the femur

- largest strongest bone in body
- articulates proximally with acetabulum of hip and distally with tibia and patella
- gluteal tuberosity and linea aspera (attachment site for hip muscles)
- medial and lateral epicondyles (attachment for knee muscles)
- valgus angle: <90˚, full extension and lower COG, bipedal locomotion


what is the patella

- patellofemoral joint
- superior surface = base, narrower surface = apex
- increase leverage of quads femoris muscle
- sesamoid bone


what is the tibia

- larger medial weight-bearing bone of leg
- lateral and medial condyles articulate with femur
- articulates distally with talus and fibula
- tibial tuberosity (attachment of patellar ligament)
- medial malleolus (medial surface of ankle joint)


what is the fibula

- smaller laterally place bone of leg, non-weight bearing
- head forms proximal tibiofibular joint
- lateral malleolus (articulates with tibia and talus)


describe the knee joint

- largest most complex joint of body, 3 joints surround by single cavity
- femorpatellar (plane joint, flexion of knee)
- lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints (flexion and extension)
- synovial, medial / lateral meniscus (absorb shock / stability), articular capsule (outside), cruciate ligament (between bones), synovial cavity (space / fluid), patellar ligament (front)


describe the foot

- tarsals: cuboid, navicular, medial, intermediate and lateral cuneiforms
- talus: articulate with tibia and fibula, forms ankle, transfers weight from tibia to calcaneus
metatarsals: bones 1-5, enlarged head of metatarsal 1 (ball of foot)
- phalanges: 14 = 3 in each except hallux - no middle phalanx)


arches of the foot

- interlocking of foot bones, ligaments and tendons
- spring and leverage to foot when walking, flex when body weight is applied
- lateral / medial longitudinal: calcaneus to metatarsals
- transverse: tarsals / base of metatarsals
- ball of foot = 40% of body weight and heel = 60%
- human: substantial modifications to accomodate a bipedal striding gait