axial skeleton Flashcards Preview

HLTH1000 > axial skeleton > Flashcards

Flashcards in axial skeleton Deck (15):

describe the structure and function of the vertebral column

- flexible curved structure containing ~26 irregular bones
- transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs, surrounds and protects spinal cord, supports head, point of attachment for ribs, pelvic girdle and muscles
- cervical (7), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacrum and coccyx


what are the curvatures of the spine / their purpose

- increase resilience and flexibility
- allow lateral rotation, bending and movement
- thoracic and sacral: two posteriorly convex curvatures (primary - birth)
- cervical and lumbar: two posteriorly concave curvatures (secondary - develop in childhood)


abnormal curvatures of the spine

- kyphosis: abnormal thoracic curvature, old people / those with osteoporosis
- lordosis: abnormal lumbar curvature, obese / last period of pregnancy
- scoliosis: abnormal lateral bend of spine (semi-vertebra / half vertebra), impaired breathing, surgery (steel rod / straightening), kids / female


what are the intervertebral discs

- fusion like pad composed of two parts, pillow, soft, absorb stress
- nucleus pulposus: inner gelatinous nucleus, gives disc elasticity and compressibility
- annulus fibrosus: outer collar, collagen and fibrocartilage
- spinal hernia: pain, movement impairment, paralysis, damage to annulus fibrosus


general structure of the vertebrae

- body / centrum: anterior weight bearing region
- vertebral arch: pedicles / laminae, enclose vertebral foramen
- vertebral foramine: make up vertebral canal for spinal cord
- intervertebral foramina: lateral opening between adjacent vertebrae for spinal nerves


describe the cervical vertebrae and C1 / C2

- C1-C7
- thin, small body (oval), spinous process (short and bifid), vertebral foramen (triangular), transverse process (contain foramina), bear weight of skull
- C1: no body or spinous process, anterior / posterior arches, two lateral masses (superior articular facet), superior surface of masses articulate with occipital condyles (nodding yes)
- C2: dens projects superiorly into anterior arch, pivot joint (atlantoaxis) lateral rotation of head (shaking no)


describe the thoracic vertebrae

- T1-T12
- articulates with ribs at facets and Demi facets
- long spinous process
- articular facets allow lateral rotation of spine (joining of vertebrae)
- heart shaped body, circular vertebral foramen, spinous process (long sharp, projects inferiorly)


describe the lumbar vertebrae

- L1-L5
- short, thick pedicles and laminae (weight bearing)
- flat hatchet shaped spinous processes
- orientation of articular facets locks vertebrae together (prevent rotating and allows bending)
- massive body (kidney shaped), triangular vertebral foramen,


describe the sacrum / coccyx

- S: 5 fused vertebra (S1-S5), forms posterior wall of pelvis
- C: tailbone, 3-5 fused vertebrae


what is the thoracic cage / its function

- formed by sternum, ribs, costal cartilage and thoracic vertebrae
- enclose and protect organs in thoracic and abdominal cavities, provide support for bones of upper limb
- play a role in breathing


describe the ribs and their attachment

- true: 1-7, attach directly to the manubrium / sternum by individual costal cartilages
- false: 8-12, attach to sternum indirectly, join costal cartilage immediately above
- floating: 11-12, lack a sternal attachment, costal cartilages lie embedded in muscles of lateral body wall


what is the typical rib attachment and rib injuries

- head of rib (head and lateral tubercle)
- neck, tubercle and shaft
- injuries: fractures from sports, severe coughing, severe force / stress
- costochondral separation: bone of rib and cartilaginous portion of rib


describe number of bones, evolution and function of the skull

- 22 bones (8 = cranium, 14 = facial)
- reduced supra-orbital ridge, zygomatic arch, changes in teeth / weaker jaw muscles, reduction in thickness of bone
- F: framework of face, cavities for special sense organs, main openings to external environment, secure teeth, anchor facial muscles, protection of brain


what is the cranium

- vault 'cavaria' = skullcap
- superior lateral and posterior aspects of skull / forehead
- base: inferior, prominent bony ridges, 3 fossa (anterior, middle and posterior)
- bones: frontal, parietal (2), occipital, temporal (2), sphenoid, ethmoid (sensory / nasal)
- sutures: coronal (frontal), sagittal (parietal), lambdoid (occipital), squamous (temporal)


what are the skull facial bones

- 14 bones
- mandible, lower jaw, largest strongest bone of face, temporo-mandibular (modified hinge, lateral and vertical movement)
- vomer (divides nasal cavity into two)
- maxilla (2), upper jaw, hard palate, articulates with facial bones
- zygomatic (2), cheekbones, prominences of cheek
- nasal (2)
- lacrimal (2)
- palatine (2)
- inferior nasal conchae (2), bridge of nose, frame, anterior = cartilage