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Rosalba Carriera

Rococo Artist
Leading Portrait Artist in Venice
○ Many foreign patrons
○ Selling to English and the French
- Father was a Painter and Mother a Lace maker
- Known for her use of pastels
○ Partly responsible for the popularity of pastels
○ Her pastels earned her an honorary membership in the Royal Academy in Italy in 1705
○ Elected unanimously in the French Academy
§ It was a sense of validation
§ You would give a piece in thanks
- Nymph of the Train of Apollo (1721)
○ Like Boucher, she gets in the history painting category by using a mythological figure
○ Being a history painter elevated her status


Elizabeth Vigée-Lebrun

- Daughter of well known pastel professor
- Father died when only 12
- Career started at age 15
- Encouraged to study Italian and Flemmish Masters
- Peace Bringing Back Abundance (1780)
○ Entry piece
○ Historical piece gave her status
- Became painter to the Queen
○ Marie-Antoinette ("a la rose") (1783)
○ Marie-Antoinette (1778)
○ Marie-Antoinette en Chemise (1783)
- Marie-Antoinette and Her Children (1787)
○ Done in Versailles
○ One of the last portraits Vigee-Lebrun painted of the queen
○ Focuses on Antoinette's role as a mother
§ Radical because high born women were expected to focus on their role as wife.
§ Nannies and Wet Nurses raised children
§ Role as mother came out of the Enlightenment.
○ Enlightenment
§ Age of reason
§ Dispelled myth and superstition
§ Rousseau was a key person
□ Encourage women to become more involved with children and parenting
○ Hung at an exhibition as in the 1787 Salon
§ Improved her image
§ Has suggestive religious nature
□ Mary and Child
§ Only hung after opening
§ Didn’t help prevent French Revolution
○ Left France before the French Revolution
§ Gone for 12 years
§ Eventually allowed to return to France


Adélaïde Labille-Guiard

- Madame Adelaide (1787)
○ Aunt to the king (this was another adelaide)
○ Was exhibited side by side to Antoinette
○ Attempt by the monarchy to defend the court through art
○ Is about status and position in society
○ Defense of the Bourbon Family
§ It was about how important this family was to France
§ Shows loyalty
§ Shows medallion of Father, Mother, and Brother
§ Trying to bring up a sense of nostalgia of the old king
§ Dress says something of her position at court
§ The relief is a deathbed scene of Louis XV
□ Emphasis of the love for king Louis XV
§ Traditional Bourbon Virtues
○ Doesn’t idealize Adelaide
§ Rigid in stance
§ Slack Jawed
§ Shows lack of teeth
- Stays in France during the Revolution
○ Sided with Revolutionaries
- Elected to the academy at the same time as Vigee-Lebrun
○ Not appointed but elected the official way


Anne Vallayer-Coster

- Influenced by Chardin
○ More realistic and not so much Rococo
- Father was a goldsmith for a tapestry factory
○ Wife ran it after his death
- Focuses on ordinary domestic objects
- Constantly compared to Chardin
- Elected Unanimously to the Academy in 1770
- Attributes of Music (1770)
- The White Soup Bowl (1771)
○ You can see steam off the soup
○ Bread is textured and looks highly detailed
○ Has a sense of perspective
- Stayed in France during the Revolution


Angelica Kauffmann

- She is originally Swiss
- Father taught her
- To further her education, he took her to Rome
○ New Ideas being developed here (enlightenment)
- She becomes a favorite of the English Aristocrats touring Italy
○ She is brought back to England by a land
- History Paintings
- Artist Hesitating between the Arts of Music and Painting (1791)
○ Personification of the Arts
○ Indicates she was a capable musician as well
○ Has a bit of Rococo style
○ Helps to usher in a new style
- Design in the ceiling of the central hall of the Royal Academy (1778)
○ Part of a new style called Neo-Classicism
§ Inspired by the excavations of Pompeii and Rome, etc
§ References the Ancient World
§ Puts artists on "stage"
□ Very play like
§ Clear Lighting
§ Moralizing Content
□ Due to the Enlightenment
§ Very momentous and full of gestures/life
○ She paints in this style
§ Reference busts and columns of Rome
- Virgil Writing his own Epitaph at Brundisium (1785)
- Cornelia Pointing to Her Children as Her Treasures (1785)
○ Based on Cornelia
§ Her sons grow up to be important members of Roman govt.
○ Typical of Roman Women to remarry
§ Instead she doesn’t and focuses on Children
○ Contains all the elements of Neo-Classicism
§ Painted at the same as the high point of Neo-Classical Art
□ Jacque-Louis David


Mary Moser

was an English painter and one of the most celebrated women artists of 18th-century Britain. One of only two female founding members of the Royal Academy (1768),[1] Moser is particularly noted for her depictions of flowers.


Marie Bashkirtseff

- Ukranian
- Dies young (mid 20's)
- Enters Acadamie in 1877
○ Paints hundreds of paintings before death in 1884
- Highly educated, multi lingual, and well traveled
- Strong advocate for education of female artists
○ Seeing both male and female form
- Self Portrait (1880)
- In the Studio (1881)
○ First painting of a woman's studio
○ Served as an advertisement for the Academie
- Autumn
○ Impressionistic feel
○ Painting of outdoors
- The Meeting (1884)
○ Aligned with a group of artists called the naturalist
§ Similar to realist, but doesn’t have political undertones
○ Bastien-Lepage was also a naturalist
○ It's a genre scene that has a very real feel without being political
§ Street kids
§ Suggestion of narrative
§ Stylistically is between the academic style and the impressionistic style
§ Accepted into the 1884 Salon
§ Several prints made because of its popularity


Elizabeth Siddall

- Began as model for Rossetti
- Many of her portraits were drawn from literature, e.g. Ophelia and Beatrice
- Beatrice (1855)/ Pippa Passes
- Worked closely in the style of Rossetti


Maria Spartali Stillman

- Burne-Jones
○ Anglo-Greek so modeled nude
○ Modeled for this piece
- Cloister Lilies (1891)/ La Pia de' Tolomei (1868-1880)
○ After death of his wife, Rosetti's art changes
§ Women close to picture plane and sharp drop off or ledge
○ Very inspired by the middle ages
○ The space is very crammed
- La Pensierosa (1879)
○ Very poetic
○ Space is pushing toward picture plane


Camille Claudel

- Student, Assistant and Lover of Rodin
- Moved to paris with family in
- Worked in an independent studio
- Her mentor turns her over as an assitant to Rodin
○ Gave her the first chance to study the nude figure
○ Allowed to work on parts of Rodin's sculptures
○ Also posed for him
- Bust of Rodin (1892)
○ Very similar in style to Rodin
- The Waltz (1892)
○ Most popular
○ Scandalous
○ Has a sense of a narrative
○ Symobolizes rhythm and melody
○ In nude
○ Seen as a little too bold and decommissioned
- L'Age Mur (1895)
○ Sometimes seen as Claudel begging for Rodin
§ He was married
§ She wants to be independent but is in love with him
- Sakuntala (1888)
○ Inspired by a Hindu drama
○ Has been read as a metaphor for her affair with Rodin
- Does have mental illness
- Committed to Assylum until death in 1939


Suzanne Valadon

- Started off as a model for many artists including Degas
- From a very poor background
- Models just to scrape by
- No formal training in art
- Reclining Nude (1928)
○ Strong outlines
○ Not very sexualized
○ Uses same images as men would use, but from a woman's point of view
○ Really compresses the space and crams everything in
○ Shapes are very simplified
- Woman of Algiers (1870)/The Blue Room (1923)
○ Renoir/Valadon
○ Similar
§ Reclined
§ Clothed / Not exposed
§ A lot of drapery and patterning
○ Difference
§ Seductive vs Relaxed
○ Matisse/Valadon

Figure is sometime lost in patterning vs. very present figure that doesn’t get lost


Henrietta Johnston

- Somewhere in South Carolina
- Known for Pastel Portraits
- First woman artist in US
- First to work in pastels in US


Patience Wright

- Known for making wax likenesses of individual
- Long before madame toussard
- Americas first Native Born Sculptor
- Started as a way to amuse children, but did it professionally after her husband died


Sarah Miriam Peale

Was an American portrait painter, one of the notable family of artists descended from the miniaturist and still-life painter James Peale, who was her father and Mary Claypoole, who was her mother. Miriam Peale is noted as a portrait painter, mainly of politicians and military figures. Lafayette sat for her four times.


Anna Claypoole Peale

was an American painter, specializing in portrait miniatures and still lifes


Margaretta Angelica Peale

was an American painter, one of the Peale family of artists. The daughter of James Peale, she was the sister of Sarah Miriam Peale, Anna Claypoole Peale, and Maria Peale. She was taught by her father, and painted primarily still-lifes, many of which were copies of his work. Stylistically, her paintings are reminiscent of his. Her paintings may be found in numerous collections, including the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia.


Lilly Martin Spencer

- Part of a utopian group. They were abolitionist and suffragettes.
- She lived in Cincinnati for art training. Married and had many children
- Husband assume most of household duties.
- Moves to New York
○ Found that genre scenes were popular here
- Domestic Happiness (1849)
○ Father is actually present
○ Children come first
○ Were very controversial at the time
- This Little Pig Went to Market (1857)
○ Quasi-religious reference (madonna and child)
○ Very elaborate and regal
○ It seems very informal as well, so it parodies the regalness
○ Undercuts traditional religious paintings
- Kiss Me and You'll kiss the 'Lasses (1856)
○ Compared to Dutch Genre Scenes
○ Holding a spoon of molasses
§ Play on words that makes it playful
- Young Husband: First Marketing (1854)
○ Sense of Humor
○ Husband doing shopping
○ Issue of being a man is addressed because of economic stagnation
- War Spirit at Home (Celebrating the Victory at Vicksburg)(1866)
○ Children are pretending to be soldiers
○ Stern nanny/maidservant in background
○ Gloomy atmosphere paired with happy children
○ Absence of husband creates an anxious emotion
○ Shows the toll of war on family, compared to War News from Mexico (1848) by Woodville


Harriet Hosmer

- Daphne (1854)
○ She was refused admission to anatomy drawing classes in Boston
○ She traveled all the way to St. Louis and studied anatomy at a medical college
○ She is the first US woman to go to Rome
§ Almost all of her important work was made here
○ She started a trend of women going to rome
§ The white Marborean Flock
- Oenone (1854-55)
○ First full size sculpture
○ From a myth for the Trojan war
○ After the fall of Troy
○ Very ambiguos with her work. Not sure which moment it is or how to interpret it
- Beatrice Cenci (1856)
○ Based on story of young Italian who was sentenced to death for planning the death of her abusive father
○ Crime involved whole family
§ Was in self defense
§ Church wanted land, so executed them anyways
- Zenobia in Chains (1859) {compared to the greek slave by powers}
○ She was a very powerful woman who ruled a city in Assyria after her husbands death
○ Conquered much of Egypt and middle east before being defeated by romans
○ She was brought to Rome and marched through city
○ She is very proud, dignified, stoic
○ Challenged the ideals of femininity at the time
§ She was a powerful woman at the time who was captured
§ She has dignity even when they were trying to embarrass her


Edmonia Lewis

- First African-American woman to achieve international recognition
- Father was black and mother was half native-american
- Orphaned in Childhood
- Eventually is adopted by Abolitionist in Ohio
- She attended Oberlin College
○ First college to admit women and african-americans
- She was arrested for prank
- Eventually went to Boston and after not finding a teacher, went to Rome
- Forever Free (1867)
○ Completed in celebration of the 13th amendment
○ More energy and less stoic than Greek Slave
○ Shows more anatomy, less smooth
- Old Indian Arrowmaker and His Daughter (1872)
○ Inspired by poem called "Song of Haiwatha"
○ Native Americans were often stereotyped and caricatures
§ She shows them as dignified and proud
- The Death of Cleopatra (1876)
○ Shows a strong woman
○ After the moment when Cleopatra had the snake bite her breast
○ Exhibited first at the centennial celebration.
○ Exhibited 2 years later then disappeared
○ Resurfaced in the 1970s
○ Thought to have been a grave marker for a dead horse named cleopatra


Vinnie Ream Hoxie

- First American woman and youngest to receive a commission for a statue.
- Abraham Lincoln (c. 1870)
- Sequoyah (1917)

First Free Standing Statue of a native american.


Susan McDowell Eakins

- After marrying Eakins, Susan gave up exhibiting her painting
- Experimented with photography to set up lighting and compositions
- Two sister (1879)/Portrait of Susan Eakins (1899)
- He is a realist painter and influences her.
○ Really captures the feelings and emotions of the scene
○ Feels like they are really sisters. Captures intimacy and emotion
○ Forms emerge from the shadows
○ Background was very thinly painted on
○ Subtle interaction between two women
○ Sense of the momentary
- The Tennis Player (1933)
- Woman Reading (1879-84)


Cecilia Beaux

- Regarded as the best female portrait painter in America
- Decided not to marry
- Pursued her career instead
- Studied at various places in US
- Studed at
- First woman to have a regular faculty position at the Philadelphia Academy for fine arts
- Knew how to use charm and personality to seem non threatening
- Painted socilaites, presidents, aristocrats
- Usually focuses on a single figure in very positive light
- Admirial Sir David Beatty, Lord Beatty (1920)
- Cardinal Mercier (1919)
- Fanny Travis Cochran (1887)/Ernesta with Nurse (1894)
○ Series of white paintings
§ Figures in white
○ Sense of fleeting expression
○ Sensuous colors and brushwork
○ Refused to place the homelier children of family and friends
○ The way color affected form
- Sita and Sarita (1892-94)/New England Woman (1895)
- Man with a Cat (Henry Sturgis Drinker) (1898)


Lady Clementina Hawarden

- Scottish
- Lived with Husband in London
- Moved to Ireland - most likely picked up photography here.
- Had many children
- Started off with Stereo-Scopic Photographs
- One of the most experimental and original photographers in the 19th century
- Full length mirrors often appear in her work - metaphor for her psyche
- Awarded a photographic medal in 1863
- Known for creating a sensual and enigmatic mood
- Study from Life (1860)/Clementina in Underclothes (1862-1863)


Julia Margaret Cameron

- English
- Was 48 when she first got a camera.
○ Gift from Children
- Lived in a remote part of Britain on the Isle of White
- Beauty Intelligence and Spirituality were interconnected
- Julia Duckworth (1867) / Ellen Terry at 16 (1864)
- Thomas Carlyle (1870)
○ Very Dramatic lighting
○ Strong Contrast
- Lancelot, Guinevere (1877)
○ Sense of a narrative
○ Attention to detail
○ The idea to make photography revered as art, attention was paid to subject


Gertrude Käsebier

○ Photo-Secession
§ Wanted to promote photography as an art form
§ Have Regular shows or exhibitions
§ Had work in stieglitz's journal called camera Work
§ First issue was dedicated to her work.
○ Opened studio in 1897
○ Most Renowned of early American Portraitist
○ On the vanguard of early American Pictorialist
○ Studied Painting
○ Liked to use lighting to obliterate detail
○ Interested in relating emotion and sentiment
○ Used knowledge of Art History as inspiration for work
○ The Manger (1899)/Miss Minnie Ashley (1905)
○ Blessed Art Thou Among Women (1899)/Portrait of Evelyn Nesbit (1903)
§ Used painting knowledge to control lighting and atmosphere
§ Sense of narrative in first
□ Talks about victorian relation between mother and child
□ Mother guiding daughter in passage
§ Second is very engaging
□ Has a very victorian sense of restrained sensuality


Imogen Cunningham

○ Influenced by Käsibier
○ Style changes drastically from painting-like to straight photography
○ Group f/64.
§ Founding Member
§ Focused on Details and capturing maximum sharpness
§ Printed on glossy black and white paper
§ Believed that clear images were the most truthful way to show the world
§ Didn’t alter the negatives when printing
○ The Dream (1910)
○ Agave /Magnolia Blossom
○ Male Nude Study (1931)/Untitled(Two Sisters (1928)


Barbara Morgan

○ Started as painter in California
○ Picked up painting in the late 1930's
○ Didn’t see painting as a feasible option for a mother
○ Influenced by Chinese and Japanese arts
§ Learned about this at UCLA
§ Felt that art must add to nature instead of taking away
○ Met Martha Graham in NYC
○ Extasis (Torsos) (1935)/Letter to the World (Kick) (1940)
§ Sense of Dramatic Movement that Graham was noted for
§ Morgan proposed a book on Grahams work
§ Would extract gestures and movements to epitomize the whole dance
§ Photos were made in studio or theatre, but not in studio
§ Final Project was called Martha Graham: 16 Dances in a Photograph
○ Hearst Over the People (1938/39)/Lamentation (1944)
§ Experimented with Photo-Montage
§ Got reputation as expressionist


Lee Miller

○ Starts off as Portraitist
○ Father was a photographer
○ Modeled for Vogue Magazine
○ Met American Artist Man Ray and Became his lover and Muse, before starting work on her own
○ Goes through Surrealist Phase
§ Irrational Look
○ Self-Portrait in Headband (1932)
○ Solarized Portrait of a Woman Thought to be Meret Oppenheim (1930)
○ Untitled (Exploding Hand), Paris (1930)
○ Leaves Man Ray and Paris in 1932; Returns to NYC and starts Studio There
○ Portrait of Space (1937)
§ Made in Egypt
§ Still somewhat influenced by surrealism
○ During WWII she become a photojournalist and makes some gruesome images
§ Photographed wartorn villages and concentration camps
§ The
○ The Suicided Burgermeister's Daughter, Leipzig Germany (1945)
○ Dead SS Guard in Canal , Dachau Germany (1945)
○ After war, She returned to fashion photography
○ Gave up Photography and turned to alcohol; war got to her


Dorothea Lange

○ American Portraitist
○ Work is very Poetic
○ Took to streets during Great Depression
○ White Angel Bread Line (1932)
○ Street Demonstration, San Francisco (1933)
○ Work in 1935 with FSA
§ Hired Groups of Artists to go throughout the country and take pictures of rural life
§ Boss was Roy Stryker
○ Ditched, Stalled and Stranded in San Joaquin Valley, CA (1935)
○ Plantation Overseer and His Field Hands near Clarksdale, MS (1936)
○ Any Journal or publication that wanted access to these images could use them
○ Migrant Mother (1936)
§ Most famous of her images
§ She was in California
§ Finishing up month trip photographing migrant farm workers
§ She takes 5 exposures
□ Orchestrates the poses of the children
§ Became knows as the face of the depression


Margaret Bourke-White

○ First Staff Photographer in 1929 for Fortune Magazine
○ Sent to photograph drought in Midwest
○ Sent to photograph life in south 1937
○ Diversion Tunnels, Fort Peck Dam (1936)
§ Appeared on Cover of Life Magazine
§ Picture of Montana Damn
○ Bread Line during Louisville Flood, KY (1937)
§ Ironic Juxtaposition of elements
§ Stark contrast of people trying to survive from flood and the "american" billboard
○ Did a lot of photographs of WWII
○ First western correspondent in Russia
○ Only western Correspondent in Russia during German invasion during WWII
○ Was with Patton when he liberated Buchenwald
○ Nazi Storm Troopers Training Glass (1938)
○ Prisoner at Buchenwalk (1945)
○ Bold Miners Nos. 1139 and 5122 (1950)
○ Gandhi, India (1946)