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Academy of St. Luke

with the purpose of elevating the work of "artists", which included painters, sculptors and architects, above that of mere craftsmen.

extended its rights to decide who was considered an artist in Rome


Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture

○ In Paris, France
○ Moved the center of art from Rome to Paris
○ Schools associated with Academy
○ Work was juried as well
- Circumvents Guilds
- Status of Artists Changes
- Hierarchy of Subjects matters
- Establishes control of the art world
○ Being accepted validated an artists
- Rooms were called Salons
○ Super crowded and stacked floor to ceiling
○ It was important where your work was hung
- Very few women accepted into the schools of the academy


Royal Academy of Art

○ Established in London to improve reputation of artists of England
- Founded in 1768
- First President was Joshua Reynolds
- Two women were part of the founding people
○ Angelica Kauffman
○ Mary Moser
- Women are more accepted - represented by the painting of women
- Plaster Casts are present - where drawing begins
○ Shows example of all the great art in the world
- Once you become proficient, you could draw from the nude models
○ This is where you really began to learn to draw the figure
○ Women didn’t have access to these models
- Established because English Aristocrat felt that the English artists didn’t have any talent
○ The king was a big supporter of English Art, but the Aristocracy felt it was inferior and sought French and Italian art.


Academy Julian

- Academie Julian was founded for both men and women
○ Was made for the preparation for the entrance exam to Ecole des beaux arts
○ Originally Men and women in same class
§ Eventually segregated because of social pressure
○ Still a good education for women
§ Women were charged more
§ Allowed access to form and figure studies


Ecole des Beaux-Arts

- Ecole des Beaux-Arts is the French Academy of Art
-Women not admitted until 1897


Union of Women Painters and Sculptors

- Union of Women Painters and Sculptors (UFPS)
- Founded in 1881
- Madame Leon Bertaux - Founder and President
- Founded to fight for the right of women to be admitted into the EDBA


Madame Bertaux

Founder and President of UFPS


Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

- Rossetti/Hunt/Millais
○ Three main Pre-Raphaelite Artists in England
○ Went to the Royal Academy of England
§ Too many people in the class for live models
§ Joshua Reynolds was President and set guidelines of art for Academy
□ Still being taught and they were tired this
§ They liked the ideas of the early renaissance
□ Issues with space but seemed more true
□ Lacked a lot of the artificialness and superficial skill
§ Work is intentionally Awkward
§ Art Establishment took the PRB as a slap in the face and were banned
§ Had relations with women and had a pygmalion complex


Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts

First school in the US to allow for the professional training of women in the arts


Pictorialist Photography

- Wanted to promote photography as an art form
- Very interested in the image and creating a mood
- Wanted to raise american photography to the level of European


Straight Photography

- Development in photography also by Steiglitz
- Instead of making photographs that looked like paintings, they wanted photographs that looked like photographs without a lot of manipulation

New era that is focused on strong compostions


Alfred Steiglitz

Pioneer in photography
Leader of the Pictorialist Photo Movement and the Straight Photography movement.



Early-20th-century movement that promoted photography as a fine art in general and photographic pictorialism in particular.
Held the then controversial viewpoint that what was significant about a photograph was not what was in front of the camera but the manipulation of the image by the artist/photographer to achieve his or her subjective vision.
Wanted to promote photography as an art form
Have Regular shows or exhibitions
Had work in stieglitz's journal called camera Work
First issue was dedicated to her work.


Group f/64

Imogen Cunningham was a Founding Member
Focused on Details and capturing maximum sharpness
Printed on glossy black and white paper
Believed that clear images were the most truthful way to show the world
Didn’t alter the negatives when printing


Farm Secruity Administration (FSA)

Run by Roy Stryker
Hired Groups of Artists to go throughout the country and take pictures of rural life
Part of the New Deal Program


Roy Stryker

Directory of FSA
Made Photos available to any journal or publication that wanted access to them.
- allowed these photos to become very popular