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Sem 2 > Asthma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Asthma Deck (37):
1

Asthma is a ....... hypersensitivity reaction

type I

2

characterised by recurrent attacks of .... and ....

breathlessness and wheezing

3

(1) antigen presents to .... ... cells

CD4 Th2

4

(2) CD4 Th2 cells release ... and ...

IL4 and IL5

5

(3) IL4 stimulates B cell production of .... antibodies

IgE

6

(4) IgE antibodies bind to .... and .... which release active mediators such as histamine, ......., prostaglandins which cause vasodilation and smooth muscle contraction of bronchi and bronchioles

mast cells and basophils; leukotrienes

7

2 asthma phenotypes =

Th2 high and Th2 low

8

2 types of asthma which are Th2 high

early onset allergic, late onset eosinophilic

9

Early onset allergic asthma is corticosteroid .....

responsive

10

Late onset eosinophilic asthma is responsive to antibody to ..... and cysteinyl leukotriene modifiers

IL5

11

2 types of asthma which are Th2 low

obesity related, neutrophilic

12

Obesity related asthma is responsive to (3)

weightloss, antioxidants and possibly hormonal therapy

13

Neutrophilic asthma is possibly responsive to

macrolide antibiotics

14

Atopic asthma - 5 asthma genes / gene complexes identified

ADAM33, PHF11, DPP10, GRPA, SPINK5

15

Atopic asthma - 5 asthma genes / gene complexes identified - expressed where

in terminally differentiating epithelium

16

4 severe asthma symptoms

cough, wheeze, breathlessness, tightness of chest

17

asthma is more common in males .... puberty

before

18

asthma is more common in females .... puberty

after

19

epidemiological definition of asthma

symptomatic bronchial hyper responsiveness

20

number of people who die per year from asthma

250 000

21

Asthma IL13 stimulates (2)

IgE production, mucus secretion

22

Asthma IL5 stimulates

eosinophilic inflammation

23

Asthma IL4 stimulates

IgE production

24

mast cells are increased in the .... and surface ... of asthmatics

epithelium; secretions

25

eosinophils are found in large numbers in .... ... and secretions of asthmatics

bronchial wall

26

number and activation of eosinophils decreased by

corticosteroids

27

eosinophils attracted to airways by eosinophopoietic cytokines (3) and chemokines that act on .... .. chemokine receptors

IL4, Il5, GM-CSF; type 3 CC chemokine receptors

28

Asthma - polarisation to Th2 mediated by .... cells

dendritic

29

Leukotrienes (3) prolong bronchoconstriction, increase vasodilation and increase mucus production

C4, D4, E4

30

In asthma, conducting airway epithelium is damaged > loss of ... .... cells

ciliated columnar

31

in asthma, epithelium undergoes metaplasia (increase in number and activity of .....)

mucus secreting goblet cells

32

in asthma, there is deposition of repair collagens (3 types) on ....... beneath basement membrane

types I, III and V; lamina reticularis

33

principle cause of airway remodelling due to aberrant signalling between epithelium and

myofibroblasts

34

stimulation of nerve endings in epithelium and submucosa > release of acetylcholine > stimulation of ....... receptors on smooth muscle > contraction

M2 muscarinic

35

Asthma detectable by xray or not?

not detectable by xray

36

Narrowing of airways often caused by abnormal sensitivity of .... receptors

cholinergic

37

in asthma narrowing of airways is reversible or irreversible?

reversible