Psychosocial Flashcards Preview

Sem 2 > Psychosocial > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psychosocial Deck (113):
1

BMI is a measure of weight related to

height

2

BMI is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by

square of height in metres

3

BMI is less accurate in which kind of people

very muscular

4

BMI less than 18.5 =

underweight

5

BMI 18.5-24.9 =

normal

6

BMI 25-29.9 =

overweight

7

BMI 30-39.9 =

obese

8

BMI 40+ =

very obese

9

4 parts of weight concern aspect of psychology of eating behaviour

meaning of food, meaning of weight, body dissatisfaction, dieting

10

3 aspects of cognitive part of psychology of eating behaviour

beliefs, attitudes, values

11

3 aspects of developmental part of psychology of eating behaviour

exposure, social learning, association

12

dieting and .... causally linked

binging

13

cognitive shifts of eating behaviour (5)

mood modification, denial, escape theory, overeating as relapse, role of control

14

factors that lead from dieting to overeating (8)

denial, loss of control, internal attributions, high risk situations, self-awareness, transcending boundaries, cognitive shifts, mood modification

15

initial management of evaluating consciousness (ABCDE)

Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability/neurology, Exposure and environment control

16

Basic neurological assessment (AVPU)

alert, verbal stimulus response, painful stimuli response, unresponsive

17

Glasgow Coma Scale breakdown

motor response /6, verbal response /5, eye response /4

18

Higher score on Glasgow Coma Scale means

more responsive

19

Bolam guidelines

decision made is fine as long as medical professional of same level within same speciality would have made same decision

20

4 ways treatment can be provided to adults who lack capacity

"best interests" decision, welfare attorney, Court of Protection deputy appointed, under mental health legislation

21

ILLNESS BELIEFS AND CHD: 3 main events

illness onset, heart attack, outcome

22

ILLNESS BELIEFS AND CHD: 3 aspects of outcome

longevity, recovery, quality of life

23

ILLNESS BELIEFS AND CHD: 5 behaviour affecting illness onset

diet, exercise, smoking, screening, type A behaviour

24

ILLNESS BELIEFS AND CHD: 2 main concepts contributing to illness onset

beliefs and behaviours

25

ILLNESS BELIEFS AND CHD: 4 beliefs affecting illness onset

susceptibility, seriousness, costs, benefits

26

ILLNESS BELIEFS AND CHD: 2 aspects of rehabilitation

behaviour change, belief change

27

ILLNESS BELIEFS AND CHD: 2 aspects that contribute to illness onset and heart attack

coping with illness, illness representation

28

ILLNESS BELIEFS AND CHD: 2 factors important between heart attack and outcome

rehabilitation, illness as stressor

29

ADHERENCE: 6 challenges of adherence

interference with other aspects of life; symptoms not present; symptoms inconsistent; treatments change; doctors change; additional comorbid conditions

30

ADHERENCE: 5 key beliefs about illness/symptoms

identity (beliefs about nature of illness); consequences (personal impact); case; cure/control; time (chronic, acute, cyclical)

31

ADHERENCE: 5 concerns about treatment:

harmful side effects; addictive; immunity/tolerance; masking symptoms; chemical vs natural

32

ADHERENCE: self efficacy =

individual's belief in capability to exercise control over challenging demands

33

ADHERENCE: compression =

overestimate low risks, underestimate high risks

34

ADHERENCE: miscalibration =

overestimate accuracy of own knowledge

35

ADHERENCE: availability =

overestimate notorious risks

36

ADHERENCE: optimism =

underestimate personal susceptibility

37

ADHERENCE: nocebo effect =

opposite of placebo effect

38

risk of side effects ,percentage to be common

1-10%

39

risk of side effects, percentage to be rare

0.01-1%

40

ADHERENCE: ... people less likely to adhere

young

41

ADHERENCE: 7 memory enhancing techniques

primacy effects; explicit categorisation; specific advice; recency events; test out patient knowledge; practice then and there; reinforce and reward

42

ADHERENCE: 6 ways to improve adherence

ensure treatment advice is realistic and attainable; assess emotional state; improve communication and doctor-patient relationship; assess beliefs and understanding; identify specific behaviours (don't be vague); memory enhancing techniques

43

5 features of local area which may influence health

physical features of shared environment e.g. water, air, climate; availability of healthy environment at work, home, leisure; reputation of area; sociocultural features of neighbourhood (political, crime, ethnic, economic, religious); services provided to support daily life e.g. education, transport, council services

44

advanced trauma life support primary survey (ABCDE) =

A= airway, B=breathing, C=circulation, D=disability/neurology, E=exposure and environmental control

45

advanced trauma life support secondary survey = history + AMPLE =

A=allergies, M=medication currently used, P= past illness/pregancy, L=last meal, E=events/environment related to injury

46

PTSD: 7 risk factors

female, lack of education, poor background, previous mental health problems, ethnic minority, previous trauma exposure, family history of mental illness

47

PTSD: 5 symptoms

increased arousal, emotionally numb, avoid anything which could trigger memories, pessimistic future outlook, recurring thoughts, memories etc

48

Bystander effect =

probability of help inversely proportionate to number of bystanders

49

3 components of bystander effect

ambiguity, cohesiveness, diffusion of responsibility

50

CBT: 4 influences of pain (sources)

cognitive (meaning of pain), emotional (emotions associated with pain), physiological (impulses sent from site of damage), behavioural (pain behaviour to increase/ decrease pain)

51

CBT: 3 methods used in CBT treatment approaches

respondent methods e.g. relaxation; cognitive methods e.g. attention diversion; behavioral methods e.g. reinforcement

52

CBT: 7 objectives and interventions to improve self-control

combat demoralisation, enhance outcome efficacy, foster self efficacy, break up automatic maladaptive coping patterns, skills training, self attribution, facilitate maintenance

53

CBT: objectives and interventions to improve self-control - combat demoralisation =

reconceptualise problems to make manageable

54

CBT: objectives and interventions to improve self-control - enhance outcome efficacy =

believe in CBT approach

55

CBT: objectives and interventions to improve self-control - foster self-efficacy =

believe they can be resourceful and competent

56

CBT: objectives and interventions to improve self-control - break up automatic maladaptive coping patterns =

monitor emotional and behavioural coping strategies that increase pain

57

CBT: objectives and interventions to improve self-control - skills training =

taught range of adaptive coping responses

58

CBT: objectives and interventions to improve self-control - self attribution =

accept responsibility for success of treatment

59

CBT: objectives and interventions to improve self-control - facilitate maintenance =

taught how to anticipate problems and consider ways of dealing with these

60

percentage of PTSD sufferers who respond to CBT

75%

61

4 PTSD CBT treatment components -

psychoeducation, exposure, cognitive restructuring, anxiety management

62

4 PTSD CBT treatment components - psychoeducation =

info given, legitimise trauma reaction, establish rational treatment

63

4 PTSD CBT treatment components - exposure =

relive and correct beliefs. habituation reduces anxiety and enhances self-mastery. promotes correctional behaviour and as discrete event

64

4 PTSD CBT treatment components - cognitive restructuring =

teach patients to identify and evaluate evidence for thoughts and beliefs

65

4 PTSD CBT treatment components - anxiety management =

coping skills provided and stress inoculation

66

hyperstress =

high stress

67

hypostress =

low stress

68

eustress =

good stress

69

distress =

bad stress

70

Cannon's flight or fight model suggests

external threats initiate fight or flight response

71

Lazarus (transactional model of stress) says stress is an

interaction

72

Lazarus (transactional model of stress) says there is a response when

individual believes demands outweigh capacity

73

Lazarus (transactional model of stress) is central around perceived stressor and

perceived ability to cope

74

Selye's general adaptation syndrome - 3 stages of stress

alarm, resistance, exhaustion

75

stress reactivity =

different appraisals of stressor - primary and secondary appraisal

76

stress recovery =

variability in rate of recovery

77

allostatic load =

body's physiological systems constantly fluctuate as respond and recover from stress - recovery less and less complete as time progresses leaving feeling depleted

78

stress resistance =

some people remain healthy when stressed - adaptive coping techniques, personality characteristics and social support affect this

79

7 examples of non-adherence to treatment

not taking enough medication, taking too much medication, not observing correct interval between doses, not maintaining correct duration, taking additional unprescribed medicines, not attending appointments, not following advice about health or illness

80

Coping with diagnosis (Shontz 1975) 3 stages

shock > encounter reaction (loss, helplessness) > retreat

81

3 stages in adjustment to physical illness and cognitive adaptation (Taylor et al 1984)

search for meaning > search for mastery > process of self-enhancement

82

3 stages of Leventhal's self regulatory model of adaptation to illness

Interpretation, coping, appraisal

83

Leventhal's self regulatory model of adaptation to illness: 5 representations of health threat

identity, cause, consequences, time line, cure/control

84

Leventhal's self regulatory model of adaptation to illness: 3 emotional responses to health threat

fear, anxiety, depression

85

Leventhal's self regulatory model of adaptation to illness: 2 aspects of interpretation of illness

symptom perception, social messages > deviation from norm

86

Leventhal's self regulatory model of adaptation to illness: 3 parts of coping

approach, coping, avoidance coping

87

Leventhal's self regulatory model of adaptation to illness: meaning of appraisal

was coping strategy effective?

88

Crisis theory (Moos and Schaefer, 1984) 3 aspects of background factors

demographic and social; physical/social/environmental; illness-related

89

Crisis theory (Moos and Schaefer, 1984) 2 categories of adaptive tasks

illness specific, general tasks

90

Crisis theory (Moos and Schaefer, 1984) 3 categories of coping skills

appraisal focussed, problem focussed, emotion focussed

91

Crisis theory (Moos and Schaefer, 1984) 5 causes of physical illness:

changes in identity, changes in location, changes in role, changes in social support, changes in the future

92

addict =

no control over behaviour, lacks moral fibre, has addictive behaviour, has maladaptive coping mechanism

93

addiction =

need for drug, use of substance psychologically and physiologically addictive, showing tolerance and withdrawal

94

dependency =

showing psychological and physiological withdrawal

95

drug =

addictive substance, causes dependency, any medical substance

96

moral model of addiction says addict has chosen to behave excessively and therefore deserves ... (acknowledge responsibility) not ... (denying responsibility)

punishment; treatment

97

first disease concept sees addiction as an ..... and addicts passively succumb to influence

illness

98

second disease concept says that the substance is not the problem, what is?

addicted individual

99

social learning theory says that behaviour is shaped by interaction with ... and ...

environment and others

100

social learning theory sees addiction as a ... behaviour

learned

101

4 ways behaviour is learned

classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning/ remodelling, cognitive factors

102

classical conditioning =

associative learning

103

operant conditioning involves

positive / negative reinforcement

104

observational learning/ remodelling relies on

the influence of significant others

105

cognitive factors (3)

self image, problem solving behaviour, coping mechanisms

106

4 stages of substance use

initiation, maintenance, cessation as a process, relapse

107

4 stages of cessation

pre-contemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance

108

5 beliefs affecting initiation and maintenance of substance use

susceptibility, seriousness, costs, benefits, expectancies

109

3 social factors affecting initiation and maintenance of substance use

parental behaviour, parental beliefs, peer pressure

110

2 perspectives of clinical interventions affecting cessation of substance use

disease perspective, social learning perspective

111

4 public health interventions affecting cessation of substance abuse

doctor's advice, worksite interventions, community approaches, government policy

112

3 things affecting relapse prevention (substance use)

coping, expectancies, attributions

113

relapse prevention intervention strategies (Marlatt and Gordon, 1985) 5 stages of relapse

high risk situation, no coping response, decreased self-efficacy, lapse, abstinence violation