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Flashcards in Other Deck (57):
1

Glandular fever is infection with

Epstein-Barr virus - type of Herpes

2

Symptoms of glandular fever include (3)

small purple spots on roof of mouth, pain behind eyes, jaundice

3

foeto-maternal haemorrhage is when

foetal blood cells enter maternal circulation

4

foeto-maternal haemorrhage is due to disruption of

membrane in placenta (cytotrophoblast and synctiotrophoblast)

5

how can a mother develop rhesus haemolytic disease?

mother RhD-/ foetus RhD+ -> anti-D antibodies -> cross placenta

6

kleinhauer test

blood test that measures amount of foetal Hb transferred to mother

7

In Rh- mothers, postnatal Anti-D prophylaxis prevents

rhesus disease in future Rh+ children

8

adrenal gland releases ..... in response to long term stress

hydrocortisone

9

adrenal gland releases ..... in response to short term stress

adrenaline

10

RHEUMATIC FEVER: ..... infection with ..... streptococci

Pharyngeal; group A

11

RHEUMATIC FEVER: affects (4)

heart, skin, joints, CNS

12

RHEUMATIC FEVER: usually affects (age range)

5-15 years

13

RHEUMATIC FEVER: ..... reaction triggered by molecular mimicry between cell wall ... ..... of streptococci pyrogens and cardiac myosin and lamini

autoimmune; M proteins

14

RHEUMATIC FEVER: what type of hypersensitivity reaction

Type II hypersensitivity reaction

15

RHEUMATIC FEVER: characteristic lesion of rheumatic carditis =

Aschoff nodule

16

RHEUMATIC FEVER: rheumatic valves have increased expression of ...... (mediates adhesion of lymphocytes)

VCAM1

17

RHEUMATIC FEVER: inflammation and valve scarring mainly due to ...... .... infiltration

CD4+ T cell

18

RHEUMATIC FEVER: presents suddenly with (4)

fever, joint pains, malaise, lack of appetite

19

RHEUMATIC FEVER: diagnosis based on ...

Modified Jones criteria

20

RHEUMATIC FEVER: diagnosis needs to meet 2 major / 1 major + >>> minor of Jone's criteria

2

21

RHEUMATIC FEVER: major criteria (5)

carditis, polyarthritis, chorea, erythema marginatum, subcutaneous nodules

22

RHEUMATIC FEVER: minor criteria (7)

fever, arthralgia, previous rheumatic fever, leukocytosis, raised ESR/ C-reactive protein, prolonged PR interval on ECG, evidence of antecedent streptococcal infection

23

RHEUMATIC FEVER: more than 50% of people who had rheumatic fever with carditis suffer 10-20yrs later from

chronic rheumatic valvular disease

24

RHEUMATIC FEVER: chronic rheumatic valvular disease mainly affects

mitral/aortic valves

25

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system regulates blood volume and ....... therefore influencing Co and arterial pressure

systemic vascular resistance

26

Renin =

proteolytic enzyme, released by kidneys and stimulates angiotensin formation and release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex

27

primary site of storage for renin

juxtaglomerular cells associated with afferent arteriole

28

renin release is inhibited by

increase of NaCl in tubular fluid

29

vascular endothelium (particularly in lungs) has

ACE

30

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system regulated by (2)

mechanisms stimulating renin release and natriuretic peptides released by heart

31

5 important functions of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

stimulate cardiac and vascular hypertrophy; stimulates aldosterone release from adrenal cortex; stimulates brain thirst centres; stimulates release of vasopressin from posterior pituitary (kidney fluid retention); enhances sympathetic adrenergic function

32

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: definition

soft tissue swelling due to accumulation of interstitial fluid

33

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: causes (15)

pitting dependent oedema, varicose veins, cardiac, drugs, hepatic, renal, gastrointestinal, pregnancy, high altitude, iodiopathic, post-thrombotic syndrome, pitting localised limb oedema, non-pitting lower limb oedema, lyphoedema, allergy

34

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: pitting dependent oedema leads to peripheral oedema because

immobility ? increased fluid pressure from venous stasis

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PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: varicose veins lead to peripheral oedema because

obesity > sodium ion and water retention

36

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: cardiac problems lead to peripheral oedema because

increased fluid pressure, right heart failure, constrictive pericarditis

37

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: drugs can lead to peripheral oedema becausae

sodium and water retention from calcium antagonists, NSAIDs, insulin, prolonged steroid therapy

38

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: 4 symptoms

anaemia, breathlessness, lung cancer, pleural effusions

39

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: dependent oedema seen in

otherwise well patients

40

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: depend oedema usually due to

benign cause such as immobility and varicose veins

41

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: pulmonary or ankle oedema usually due to

cardiac failure

42

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: of hands / face usually due to

hypoproteinaemia (seen after lying down), angiodema

43

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: ascites usually due to (3)

liver failure, protein malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome

44

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: unilateral swelling (particularly calf) usually due to

DVT

45

PERIPHERAL OEDEMA: scrotal sac usually due to

hydroceles (nephrotic syndrome)

46

CHEST X RAY: anterior-posterior (AP) projection used if patient is

too unwell to stand

47

CHEST X RAY: Can tell if AP because medial border of scapula

overlaps lung

48

Purulent sputum contains (5)

pus, WBCs, cellular debris, dead tissue, mucus

49

rusty coloured sputum indicates

pneumococcal bacteria (pneumonia)

50

blood streaked sputum indicates

inflammation of throat, bronchi, lung cnacer

51

pink sputum indicates

sputum evenly mixed with blood from alveoli/small bronchi

52

lots of blood in sputum indicates

cavity TB of lung, lung abscess, infarction, embolism, bronchiectasis

53

yellow-green (mucopurulent) sputum can be treated with

antibiotics

54

green sputum indicates

neutrophil myeloperoxidase

55

frothy pink sputum indicates

pulmonary oedema

56

foamy white sputum indicates

obstruction or sometimes oedema

57

white, milk, opaque (mucoid) sputum suggests

antibiotics will be ineffective