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Flashcards in Asthma Deck (36)
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1

Are asthma rates consistent throughout the provinces?

No, highest in Atlantic, lowest in BC and Prairie Provinces

2

What type of reaction is asthma?

A hypersensitivity reaction

3

What can low birthweight and RDS contribute to?

Childhood asthma

4

True or false: obesity, hormonal influences contribute to adult onset asthma.

True

5

Are asthma episodes reversible

yes, typically with or without medication

6

Atopic/ allergy asthma is known as what?

Extrinsic asthma

7

Type 1 IgE mediated hypersensitivity reaction describes what?

Extrinsic asthma

8

Cold air, hyperventilation, hormonal changes and GERD lead to what kind of asthma?

Intrinsic asthma

9

What is a key feature of asthma?

Epithelial cell activation and injury of the bronchi

10

In what phase of asthma does the allergen bind to performed IgE on sensitized mast cells on mucosal surface on airways?

Early phase, within 10-20 minutes and can last up to 2 hours

11

What cell in the early phase of asthma is responsible for releasing histamine, chemotactic chemokines, leukotrienes, PG D2, cytokines and PAF?

Mast cell activation

12

What causes the recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, T lymphocytes in the _ phase of asthma?

- late phase
- the release of inflammatory mediators in the early phase

13

What causes epithelial injury, edema, increase mucus and changes in mucociliary function?

inflammatory cells

14

What causes an increase in migration and activation of inflammation in asthma?

Cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-4,5

15

What role do T Lymphocytes (TH2) play in asthma?

Skewed to be pro-inflammation so they further direct the release of inflammatory mediators.

16

What cell acts directly on smooth muscle causing constriction in the early phase of asthma?

Histamine

17

What cells stimulate the increase in mucus production?

Leukotrienes

18

In mucus hypersecretion: _ cell hyperplasia and _ gland hypertrophy

- goblet cell
- submucosal

19

Th2 release _ and _ that lead to upregulation of mucus production in asthmatic patients

- IL9 and IL-13

20

True or false: Airway remodeling is very helpful in asthma for patients to be able to return to 80% of their FEV

False, airway remodeling is not something good

21

The increase in deposition of _ and other proteins lead to thickening of the lamina reticularis with _ fibrosis and _ vascularity in the airwar wall contributing to _

collagen, subepithelial, increased

22

_ and _ caused by mismatch of ventilation and perfusion

hypercapnia and hypoxemia

23

What are common symptoms of an asthma attack?

dyspnea, SOB, cough, chest tightness, cough, wheezing

24

True or false: upon auscultation of lungs of a patient with an asthma exacerbation it is common to hear crackles

True, indicates a deep tissue infection

25

What type of vital signs would you expect to see a patient having an asthma attack?

tachypnea, tachycardia, hypoxemia

26

Normal values of: pH_, pCO2_, HCO3_

-pH 7.35-7.45
- pCO2 35-45
- HCO3 22-26

27

Initial lab values would show an asthmatic patient having respiratory _ with hyperventilation and +/-_ if left untreated can lead to _+_

- alkalosis, hypoxemia
- acidosis, hypoxemia

28

_ offers the single most objective measurement of lung function available

spirometry

29

_shows how controlled a patient's asthma is and if it is getting worse

peak flow monitor

30

what type of test alerts us that the patient needs to administer a SABA

peak flow monitor