Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances Deck (56)
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1

Capillary _ pressure pushes fluid out into the interstitial space

hydrostatic

2

Capillary _ pressure pulls the fluid into the capillary

colloidal osmotic

3

Excess interstitial fluid is taken up by _ and returned back to normal circulation

lymphatics

4

High Osmolarity causes :
_ thirst
_ ADH release

increased thirst and increase ADH

5

Low Osmolarity causes:
_ thirst
_ ADH release

decreased

6

Normal movement of fluid depends on the _ of the capillary membrane

integrity

7

DVT will result from increased capillary _ pressure

Hydrostatic

8

Burns, liver disease, malnutrition and excessive wound drainage can all contribute to _ levels in decreased capillary osmotic pressure

serum albumin

9

" leaky capillaries" is a result of_

increased interstitial osmotic pressure

10

Obstruction of _ flow occurs in increased tissue hydrostatic pressure

lymph flow, because excess fluid is not removed

11

What is the term that describes an accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space?

edema

12

What is the term used to describe fluid accumulating in transcellular spaces such as pericardium, joint spaces, and the peritoneum?

third-spacing

13

What does it mean when fluid is non-functional?

it means that the fluid does not return back to circulation such as in the case of third-spacing

14

What are causes and manifestations of edema in the brain?

- causes: infection, trauma
- increases intracranial pressure, patient will have headache, altered lvl of con, abnormal pupils, changes in breathing and muscle tone.

15

What are some common manifestations of edema in the lungs?

- decrease in gas exchange, dyspnea, anxiety or restlessness, crackling, diminished breath sounds

16

What is ascites?

third spacing of the peritoneal, causes loss inside the lumen and wall if there is obstruction

17

What would you expect to see in a patient with abdominal edema?

- increase in abdominal girth
- protruding umbilicus
- SOB (diaphragm impeded)

18

What are the two different types of peripheral edema?

pitting and dependent

19

What type of peripheral edema is caused by obstruction of venous blood flow?

dependent

20

What type of peripheral edema is caused by salt retention?

pitting

21

_ and _ are receptors that monitor fluid levels

chemoreceptors and baroreceptors

22

_ receptors are located in the hypothalamus and monitor blood concentration

chemoreceptors

23

_ receptors are located in blood vessels and kidneys, stretch receptors

baroreceptors

24

In what case what ADH be released?

The chemoreceptors in the hypothalamus sense low blood volume for increased osmolarity

25

How does GFR contribute to maintenance of blood volume?

constriction and relaxation of afferent and efferent arterioles

26

What cells in the baroreceptors sense the change in stretch?

juxtaglomerular cells

27

Where does aldosterone exert its effects?

In the distal tubules promoting the exchange of sodium and potassium because sodium brings water back into the cell promoting increase in blood volume

28

_ peptides counter balance the activity of baroreceptors, ADH and RAA system

natriuretic

29

What is one of the earliest signs of fluid imbalance?

Tachycardia

30

Fluids unavailable or withheld or impaired thirst mechanism are causes of _

isotonic fluid volume deficit