Flashcards in Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances Deck (56)
Capillary _ pressure pushes fluid out into the interstitial space
Capillary _ pressure pulls the fluid into the capillary
Excess interstitial fluid is taken up by _ and returned back to normal circulation
High Osmolarity causes :
_ ADH release
increased thirst and increase ADH
Low Osmolarity causes:
_ ADH release
Normal movement of fluid depends on the _ of the capillary membrane
DVT will result from increased capillary _ pressure
Burns, liver disease, malnutrition and excessive wound drainage can all contribute to _ levels in decreased capillary osmotic pressure
" leaky capillaries" is a result of_
increased interstitial osmotic pressure
Obstruction of _ flow occurs in increased tissue hydrostatic pressure
lymph flow, because excess fluid is not removed
What is the term that describes an accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space?
What is the term used to describe fluid accumulating in transcellular spaces such as pericardium, joint spaces, and the peritoneum?
What does it mean when fluid is non-functional?
it means that the fluid does not return back to circulation such as in the case of third-spacing
What are causes and manifestations of edema in the brain?
- causes: infection, trauma
- increases intracranial pressure, patient will have headache, altered lvl of con, abnormal pupils, changes in breathing and muscle tone.
What are some common manifestations of edema in the lungs?
- decrease in gas exchange, dyspnea, anxiety or restlessness, crackling, diminished breath sounds
What is ascites?
third spacing of the peritoneal, causes loss inside the lumen and wall if there is obstruction
What would you expect to see in a patient with abdominal edema?
- increase in abdominal girth
- protruding umbilicus
- SOB (diaphragm impeded)
What are the two different types of peripheral edema?
pitting and dependent
What type of peripheral edema is caused by obstruction of venous blood flow?
What type of peripheral edema is caused by salt retention?
_ and _ are receptors that monitor fluid levels
chemoreceptors and baroreceptors
_ receptors are located in the hypothalamus and monitor blood concentration
_ receptors are located in blood vessels and kidneys, stretch receptors
In what case what ADH be released?
The chemoreceptors in the hypothalamus sense low blood volume for increased osmolarity
How does GFR contribute to maintenance of blood volume?
constriction and relaxation of afferent and efferent arterioles
What cells in the baroreceptors sense the change in stretch?
Where does aldosterone exert its effects?
In the distal tubules promoting the exchange of sodium and potassium because sodium brings water back into the cell promoting increase in blood volume
_ peptides counter balance the activity of baroreceptors, ADH and RAA system
What is one of the earliest signs of fluid imbalance?