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Flashcards in ataxia Deck (11):
1

dysfunction in which part of the brain is associated with ataxia?

the cerebellum

controls the timing and pattern of motor activity during movement

ataxio=lack of order

2

dysfunction of which cells are associated with dysfunction in ataxia?

purkinje cells

maybe insert diagram?

3

what are the symptoms of cerebellar dysfunction?

slurring of speech ( staccato)

oscilopsia

clumsiness

loss of movement precision

action tremor

unsteadiness when walking (worse in dark)

falls

cognitive problems

4

what are the signs of cerebellar dysfunction

gait ataxia
truncal ataxia
action tremor
dysdiadochokinaesia
nystagmus
dysarthria

5

what is nystagmus?

abnormalities of eye movements

6

what are the 6 classifications of ataxias?

1) congenital (eg cerebellar dysgenesis
2) disease where ataxia is one of many features (usually autosomal recessive diseases)
3) episodic ataxias (eg EA1,1...)
4) autosomal recessive (FA)
5) autosomal dominant (eg SCAs)
6) sporadic ataxias (eg MSA-C, gluten ataxia)


does not include structural damage ataxia

7

what history features should be taken for ataxia?

age of onset
rate of progression
additional features (genito-urinary, postural)
pattern of involvement
detailed family history
alcohol intake
exposure to drugs toxic to the cerebellum

8

what examinations should be performed for ataxias?

eye involvement (nystagmus, broken pursuit)
limb ataxia
gait ataxia
symmetrical vs unilateral
evidence of peripheral neuropathy or sensory
neuronopathy (sensory ataxia)
evidence of postural blood pressure fall

9

what radiological investigation is useful for ataxias?

MRI imaging

to exclude:
cerebrovascular damage
primary tumours
secondary tumours
hydrocephalus
MS
white matter involvement in leukodystrophy
cerebellar dysgenesis/malformations

10

list some causes of ataxia

Sporadic
idiopathic sporadic
gluten ataxia
clinically probably MSA-C
alcohol related
paraneoplastic ataxia
anti-GAD associated ataxia
opsoclonus-myoclonu

11

in what percent of ataxia is no cause identified?

24%