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AQA A Level Psychology > Attachment Keywords > Flashcards

Flashcards in Attachment Keywords Deck (21)
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1

Cultural variations

refers differences in norms and values that exist between people in different groups -differences in the proportion of children of different attachment types

2

Maternal deprivation (Bowlby)

emotional and intellectual consequences of separation between a child and their mother - Bowlby: continuous care from a mother is essential for normal psychological development, prolonged separation = serious damage to emotional and intellectual development

3

Institutionalisation

where children live in hospitals or orphanages for long continuous periods of time - there is often very little emotional care provided

4

Orphan studies

concern children placed in care because their parents cannot look after them - parent either died or abandoned them permanently

5

Childhood relationships

affiliations with other people in childhood e.g. friends, classmates, teachers etc.

6

Insecure-resistant attachment

strong attachment - high levels of stranger and separation anxiety, resistance to be comforted at reunion

7

Insecure-avoidant attachment

weak attachment - low stranger and separation anxiety, little response to reunion and avoidant of caregiver

8

Secure attachment

most desirable attachment (psychologically healthy outcomes) - moderate stranger and separation anxiety, ease of comfort at reunion

9

Strange situation

controlled observation designed to test attachment security - infants assessed on response to playing in an unfamiliar room, left alone/with stranger and reunion with caregiver

10

Critical period

time within which attachment needs to be formed if it is to be formed at all - Bowlby: infants have a sensitive period after which it will be harder to form an attachment

11

Imprinting

phenomenon where bird species that are mobile from birth attach and follow the first moving thing they see after hatching

12

Learning theory

behaviourist approach - emphasise learning in the acquisition of behaviour (classical/operant conditioning)

13

Classical conditioning

learning through association between two stimuli so that you respond to one in the same way as you already respond to the other

14

Operant conditioning

learning whether or not to repeat behaviour depending on consequences (positive/negative reinforcement)

15

Monotropic

indicates 'one' particular attachment is different from all others and is the central of importance to child's development

16

Reciprocity

mother-infant interactions - both respond to each other's signals

17

Interactional synchrony

mother and infant reflect both the actions and emotions of the other and do this in a coordinated way

18

Stages of attachment

some characteristics of the infant's behaviour changes as the infant gets older

19

Multiple attachments

attachment to two or more people - usually after already formed one true attachment to main caregiver

20

Adult relationships

relationships child goes on to have later in life - friendships, working relationships but mostly romantic relationships and with their own children

21

Internal working model

mental representations of our attachment to our primary caregiver - important in affecting future relationships as they carry perception of what relationships are like