Atypical Cervical Vertebrae C1/Atlas Flashcards Preview

Spinal Exam 2 > Atypical Cervical Vertebrae C1/Atlas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Atypical Cervical Vertebrae C1/Atlas Deck (45):
1

What is the name of the first cervical vertebra

atlas

2

What features are lacking on C1 (atlas)

vertebral body, pedicles, a spinous process, and the intervertebral disc

3

What muscles attach to the anterior arch of C1

Longus colli

4

What ligaments attach to the anterior arch of C1

anterior longitudinal ligament, anterior antlato-occipital, and the anterior atlantal-axial ligaments

5

What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1

the fovea dentis

6

What is the morpology of the superior articular facet of C1

they are elliptical, closer together in the front and often demonstrate an elvation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces

7

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1

backward up and medial, BUM

8

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-occipital zygapophysis

synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal Joint

9

What are the morphologial characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1

asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened

10

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1

BMD backward medial and down

11

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-axial zygapophysis

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

12

What is the name of the rounded elevation on the medial aspect of the lateral mass of C1

tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament

13

What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1

Levator scapula, splenius cervicis and rectus capitus anterior

14

What is the contribution of the posterior arch to the circumference of C1

about 40%

15

What part of C1 represents the spinous process

posterior tubercle of the posterior arch

16

What is the sdistance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender

males: about 50 millimeters
females: about 37 millimeters

17

What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1

rectus capitus posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae

18

What superior surface modifications of the posterior arch of C1 are present

groove/sulcus for the vertebral artery and arcuate rim

19

What attaches to the arcuate rim of C1

the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

20

ossification of the free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital-ligament results in which atypical bone classification

accessory bone

21

What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed

about 7 years old

22

What may be formed by ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occiptal ligament

a partial ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus

23

What other name may be used to describe a ponticulus posticus

kimmerle's anomaly

24

What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus

arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal

25

ponticulus posticus has been observed in what ethnic populations

all ethnic populations studied thus far

26

What is the general range of incidence of ponticulus posticus in the populations studied

1-41%

27

What is the gender bias now associated with ponticulus posticus

female

28

What is the incidence of a complete ponticulus posticus versus an incomplete ponticulus posticus

the incidence of a complete is about 15%
the incidence of an incomplete can be as high as 41%

29

What joint classification(s) may be observed on the posterior arch of C1

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

30

What is the location of the "zygapophysis" relative to the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial intervertebral foramina

it forms part of the anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen in both cases

31

What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1

costal element, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

32

What osseous parts of the transverse process are absent at C1

anterior tubercle and costotransverse bar

33

What muscles attach to the Transverse process of C1 (a lot)

rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, splenius cervicis, obliquuis capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior, and intertransversarii muscle

34

What suboccipital muscles are known to have fascial projections attaching to the spinal dura

rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, and obliquus capitis inferior

35

What are the connecutions between suboccipital muscles and the spinal dura called

myodural bridges

36

What are the lateral bridges of the atlas connected to

the lateral mass and the transverse process of atlas

37

what opening is identified when a complete lateral bridge is formed

the retrotransverse foramen

38

What are the possible contents of the retrotransverse foramen

the vertebral artery, a branch from the suboccipital nerve, and veins communicating with the venous sinus of the neck

39

Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is most numerous

ponticulus posticus

40

Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is only identified in humans

lateral bridges

41

What is observed in the transverse foramen of C1

vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus, postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

42

What is the gender variation for measurements of the transverse diameter of C1

Male: 78 mm
females 72 mm

43

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin for each gender

a little over 30 mm for both male and females

44

What joint classifications are observed at C1

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint,
synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint,
synovial piviot (diarthrosis trochoid)
synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

45

how many synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1

5