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Flashcards in Auto/endo System Deck (45)
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1

What type of nerves are associated with the alarm response and the feelings of excitement, emotion and exercise?

Sympathetic

2

What type of nerves are associated with the relaxation response and repetiton, rest and relaxation?

Parasympathetic

3

Describe the alarm response in terms of the heart rate:

Heart rate increases and contractile force increases

4

Describe the alarm response in terms of the eyes:

Dilate pupils to see more stuff

5

Describe the alarm response in terms of the lungs:

Dilate bronchi and breathe faster

6

Describe the alarm response in terms of the skin:

Contract peripheral blood vessels, contract arector pilli muscles, increase sweat secretion.

7

Describe the alarm response in terms of the blood sugar levels

Increased to get more glucose to the brain

8

Describe the alarm response in terms of the BP and water retention in kidneys:

BP increases and more water is retained

9

For the autonomic nervous system, what is the sensory input?

Interoreceptors

10

For the autonomic nervous system, what is the control of output?

Involuntary from the limbic system, hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal chord

11

For the autonomic nervous system, what are the effectors?

Smooth muscle and glands

12

For the autonomic nervous system, what is the motor neuron pathway? I,e how many neurons are there?

2 neuron pathway

13

For the autonomic nervous system, what are the neurotransmitters?

Acetylecholine
- preganglionic axons
- postganglionic parasympathetic
- postganglionic sympathetic to sweat glands
Norepinephrine
- postganglionic sympathetic fibres other than sweat glands

14

For the sympathetic nervous system describe the innervation of an effector cell (not a sweat gland):

The myelinated preganglionic neuron synapses with the postganglionic neuron at the ganglion and releases acetyl choline. The non-myelinated post ganglionic neuron synapses at the effector cell and releases norepinephrine.

15

For the sympathetic nervous system describe the innervation of a sweat gland:

The myelinated preganglionic neuron synapses with the postganglionic neuron at the ganglion and releases acetyl choline. The non-myelinated post ganglionic neuron synapses at the sweat gland cell and releases acetylcholine.

16

For the parasympathetic nervous system describe the innervation of an effector cell:

The myelinated preganglionic neuron synapses with the postganglionic neuron at the ganglion and releases acetyl choline. The non-myelinated post ganglionic neuron synapses at the effector cell and releases acetylcholine

17

Describe raynauds disease:

Excessive sympathetic stimulation following emotional stress or exposure to cold. Leads to chronic vasoconstriction - fingers and toes become ischemic (lack of blood) and turn white

18

What are the 4 main functions of the hypothalamus:

1. Regulates behavioural patterns
2. Circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycles
3. Body temp
4. Eating/drinking

19

What is the HPA axis made up of?

Hypothalamus, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

20

What are the 2 types of hormones and describe them:

1. Endocrine hormones are released from a cell and travel through the bloodstream to affect distant target cells
2. Local hormones can either b paracrine or autocrine. Paracrine = affect cells close to it not necessarily going through the bloodstream. Autocrine = hormone is released by a cell that then acts back on that cell to affect its behaviour.

21

Describe lipid-soluble hormones:

They are not aqueous so they need to be associated with a transport protein to move through the bloodstream. When they reach their target tissues they detach from their transport protein and diffuse through the lipid bilayer into the cell. They look for receptors in the cells nucleus to bind to. Activated receptor hormone complex alters gene expression and newly formed mRNA directs synthesis of specific proteins on ribosomes. New protein alters cell activity.

22

Describe water soluble hormones:

They don't need a transport protein so they just go to the cell. They cannot diffuse through the cell membrane so they bind to a receptor on the outside of the cell to activate the G protein which activates the adenyl cyclase, which converts ATP to cAMP which serves as a second messenger to activate protein kinases which phosphorylate other enzymes. The phosphorylated enzymes catalyse reactions that produce a physiological response.

23

Describe the importance of inducibility using cholera as an example:

Cholera permanently locks the G protein in its activated state which leads to high cAMP and pumps chloride into the intestines so water flows out and leads to diarrhoea

24

What connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?

The infundibulum

25

How many hormones does the hypothalamus secrete and what type of hormones are they?

9 hormones - releasing and inhibiting

26

How many hormones does the pituitary secrete and what type of hormones are they?

7 hormones - controlling endocrine organs

27

How do hormones get to the target tissues when they are released at the top of the pituitary?

They are released at the axon termini at the top of the pituitary and they travel through the portal vein to the secondary plexus (anterior pituitary) then into the bloodstream and to the target cells.

28

Going from the outside in what are the names of the 3 layers of the adrenal glands?

1. Capsule
2. Cortex
3. Medulla

29

What hormones does the medulla of the adrenal gland release?

Norepinephrine and epinephrine

30

What stimulates the medulla to release norepinephrine and epinephrine?

Acetylcholine from sympathetic preganglionic neurons (medulla contains modified postganglionic).