Flashcards in Autobiographical memory Deck (56):
What is autobiographical memory?
Specific personal memory about the self
Includes who, what, when, where memories
Strong emotion attached
Is AM short-/long-lasting?
What is recognition memory?
Realising that a perceptually present stimulus/event has been encountered before
How is recognition memory tested in infants?
What is recall memory?
Retrieval of a past stimulus/event that isn’t perceptually present
How is recall memory tested in infants?
How do we test recall in adults?
- digit recall
- object recall
- memorising a word list
What type of memory is involved in being able to write an essay?
What type of memory is involved in knowing the answer to an MCQ?
What are elaborative mothers?
- provide a narrative structure for the recall of events
- provide info whilst letting the child add their own info
- more elaborative
- talk about what the child is interested in
What are repetitive mothers?
- repeat the same question in different ways until the child produces the answer required/mother gives in & tells the child
- no structure in their conversations
- mother doesn't add new info
- don’t talk about what the child is interested in
Fivush (2010) found that mothers who reminisce with their child in elaborative ways...
...have children who develop more detailed & coherent AMs
Hudson (1990) found large differences between children with elaborative vs. repetitive mothers on memory for which types of events?
Old events (talked about more than once)
Hudson (1990) found little differences between children with elaborative vs. repetitive mothers on memory for which types of events?
New events (talked about once)
What types of events did Hudson (1990) find that children with elaborative mothers remembered better (vs. repetitive mothers)?
Old events - old info was reinforced by their mother when they talked about it together, more detail was added & the infant built up a narrative
What is a limitation of Hudson's (1990) study?
Correlational - doesn't imply causation (but can still determine associations)
Researchers assessed children's memory at 2 1/2 years old, & then memory & narrative at 3 1/2 years old. Who did this study & what did they find?
Reese & Newcombe (2007)
Children of elaborative mothers had richer & more accurate memories
What might children develop for commonly-occuring events/routines?
What are the phases of schema development?
1. Schema confirmation
2. Schema deployment
What type of events do infants concentrate on when in schema confirmation?
Typical aspects of a situation
What happens in schema confirmation?
- the same things are happening in the same order on each occasion
- the child forms a representation of the event
- the child focuses on typical aspects of the event
When does a child enter schema deployment?
- when the schema has been formed
- the child focuses on atypical aspects of the event
Farrar & Goodman (1992) had 4 & 7 year-olds experience an unfamiliar event (= script event) 1 or 3 times, then introduced deviations from this script event (= episodic event). When they assessed the children's recall 1 week later, what did they find?
4 y/o remembered the same low proportion of events in the script & episodic events after 1 visit (if they don’t have a schema, they don’t know what is typical/atypical)
7 y/o remembered more about the episodic event than the script event after 1 visit (they had built up a schema & used it to identify what was atypical)
4 y/o kept learning more about the script event even after 3 repetitions
7 y/o forgot the script event & remembered more about the episodic event with repetition (atypical aspects became typical & they began schema confirmation)
According to Farrar & Goodman (1992), what stages of schema development were the 4 y/o & 7 y/o in their study?
4 y/o - schema deployment
7 y/o - schema confirmation
When a child is in schema confirmation after the event has been repeated, what type of events will they remember? Typical/atypical?
When a child is in schema deployment the first time an event takes place, what type of events will they remember? Typical/atypical?
When a child is in schema deployment after the event has been repeated, what type of events will they remember?
Atypical (unless they are repeated so often that they become typical events)
What affects the age at which children move from schema confirmation to deployment?
- the cognitive complexity of the event
- the child's experience of the event
What stage do infants spend most time in? Schema confirmation/deployment
Why might infants be more likely to forget info in they are in schema confirmation?
Attend to typical events --> unlikely to be memorable events, so will probably be forgotten later in life
What causes infantile amnesia, according to Josselyn & Frankland (2012)?
The constant addition of new neurons to the hippocampus
Which area of the brain shows high levels of neurogenesis, linked to infantile amnesia?
Infants have an inability to form STMs/LTMs?
What does the decline of post-natal hippocampus neurogenesis levels correspond to?
Emergence of the ability to form LTMs
- high neurogenesis levels regulate the ability to form LTMs
When attention abilities improve, what else does too?
What are memory strategies?
Deliberate mental operations used to increase the likelihood of retaining info in WM and transferring it to our LT knowledge base
What is rehearsal?
Repeating info to yourself
It holds info in WM
What is organisation?
Grouping related items together
When do we start using elaboration?
By the end of middle childhood
What is elaboration?
Creating relationships between pieces of info that don’t belong to the same category
How do we retrieve info from our LT knowledge base?
Recognition, recall, reconstruction
What is recognition?
Noticing that a stimulus is identical/similar to one we have previously experienced
Recognition is the simplest form of retrieval because material-to-be-remembered is present during testing to serve as its own retrieval cue
It is a fairly automatic process
What is recall?
Generating a mental representation of an absent stimulus
When does the ability to recall begin?
After 6 months-old
At age 2, we can't recall more than 1/2 items. At age 4, we can only recall 3/4 items. Who found this?
Which skill/s improves our ability to recall info?
- enhances our long-term representations of lists of items and past experiences
What improves more - recognition or recall?
- older children use a wider range of retrieval cues
What happens to the LT knowledge base as we get older?
- becomes more organised into elaborate, hierarchically-structured networks
How do we remember complex info (i.e. what do we have to do)?
We must select and interpret info that we encounter everyday in terms of our existing knowledge
What is reconstruction of info?
Condensing, integrating and adding new info
What is the Fuzzy Trace theory?
When we first encode info, we reconstruct it automatically and create a vague, fuzzy version (= a gist) which preserves essential meaning without details that is useful for reasoning
According to the Fuzzy Trace theory, which do we have a bias towards - a gist or the literal verbatim version - and why?
- requires less space in WM
With age, do we rely more on gists or the literal verbatim version of events?
Fuzzy reconstructed gists
Which is more likely to be forgotten - gists or the literal verbatim version?
Why are gists more likely to be remembered than the literal verbatim version?
- serve as enduring retrieval cues
- contribute to improved recall of details with age