Flashcards in Development of face perception Deck (36):
What does the evolutionary perspective say about how our ability to recognise faces emerges?
We have an innate template of human faces that predisposes us to good face perception
What does the experimental perspective say about how our ability to recognise faces emerges?
We learn to see faces as faces
In terms of face tracking, what features/aspects do infants prefer to look at/attend to?
- high contrast patterns
- moderate complexity images
- regular/symmetrical shapes
Fantz (1961) showed 4 day-old - 6 month-old infants a face, scrambled face and a simple stimulus with the same amount of light and dark. What did they find?
Even 4 day-olds preferred looking at the face stimulus
Who found that newborns preferred to look at schematic faces over scrambled faces?
Johnson et al. (1991)
How is Johnson and Morton's (1991) study different to Johnson et al. (1991) (face tracking)?
Johnson and Morton (1991) used moving faces/stimuli
- they found that newborns tracked faces for longer
[both used newborns]
At what age did Maurer and Barrera (1981) find that infants spent more time looking at faces?
2 months-old (but not 1 month)
- suggests that the preference for faces is a learnt behaviour that starts developing at 1 month-old
Johnson and Morton (1991) found that 1 month-olds looked at faces for longer than non-face stimuli, but ___ month-olds did not look longer at either.
When do infants start looking longer at static faces vs. static non-faces?
After 2 months-old
When do infants start tracking moving faces for longer than moving non-faces?
Before 3 months-old but not after
Which mechanisms mediate face processing?
What is CONSPEC?
- an innate mechanism that drives our attention towards faces
- mediates tracking
- 'trains up' CONLERN
- ensures that facial input is maximised during the first 2 months before CONLERN comes 'online'
When is CONSPEC 'turned off'?
What is CONLERN?
- mediates looking to static faces
- develops through learning
When is CONLERN activated?
Who proposed CONSPEC and CONLERN?
Morton and Johnson (1991)
How/why does CONLERN develop?
As a result of the cortex's exposure to faces (ensured by CONSPEC)
What did Valenza et al. (1996) conclude about CONSPEC and static/moving faces?
Infants still preferred to look at schematic faces when static (vs. moving)
- suggests that movement is not required to activate CONSPEC
The limited functionality of CONSPEC renders it unable to account for which face abilities in newborns?
- preference for mother's face vs. stranger's face
- preference for attractive faces
- preference for a female adult face with eyes open vs. eyes closed
- preference for a face with a direct gaze vs. averted gaze
We should only build representations for stimuli that we encounter, and should demonstrate superior processing of these stimuli.
What can we conclude about CONLERN from this?
CONLERN is experience-driven
Which researchers had 6 month-olds, 9 month-olds and adults compare familiar and novel human and monkey faces?
Pascalis et al. (2002)
What did Pascalis et al. (2002) find?
- 6 month-olds could discriminate between familiar and novel monkey and human faces (looked longer at novel)
- 9 month-olds could discriminate better between familiar and novel human faces than monkey faces
- adults spent longer looking at novel human faces but couldn’t distinguish between novel and familiar monkey faces
Which researchers investigated the other-race effect in native French children?
Sangrigoli and deSchonon (2004)
In Sangrigoli and deSchonon's (2004) study, were 3-5 year-olds better at distinguishing between faces of their own native French race or between Asian faces?
Faces of their own race
What is the other-race effect?
- we are better able to distinguish faces of people from our own native race than others races
- adults are more susceptible to recognition errors when the target face is from an unfamiliar race rather than their own race
Sangrigoli et al. (2005) investigated whether the other-race effect is modifiable by novel experiences that occur after age 3. What groups of children did they compare?
1. Caucasian children who had lived in France since birth
2. Native Korean children who had been bought up in Korea but lived in France
3. Korean children who had been adopted by French-Caucasian families as children
Sangrigoli et al. (2005) investigated whether the other-race effect is modifiable by novel experiences that occur after age 3. What did they do in their study?
Sangrigoli et al. (2005) showed children photos of Caucasian and Japanese faces, then had them identify which they had seen before from a pair
What did Sangrigoli et al. (2005) find?
- adoptees and Caucasians were more accurate with Caucasian faces
- Koreans were more accurate with Asian faces
What did Sangrigoli et al. (2005) conclude from their other-race study?
- the effect of early visual experience may be erased as a result of immersion in a novel face environment (i.e. the other-race effect is reversible)
- this study supports the experiential nature (learning through experience) of the other-race effect
Until what age did Sangrigoli et al. (2005) find environmental inputs can influence the development of face-processing?
Until at least 9 years-old
Newborns move their eyes and heads to follow moving stimuli. They are more responsive to a proper face pattern than a scrambled face/blank stimuli. The researchers concluded that visual discriminations are made at an early age, i.e. organised visual perception is unlearned. Who found this?
Goren, Sarty and Wu (1975)
Who found that the same brain areas (activated when looking at faces) are activated when car experts observed cars and bird experts observed birds?
Gauthier et al. (2000)
Which area of the brain is activated when looking at pictures of faces and the individual's expert area?
Fusiform gyrus (FFA)
What did Diamond and Carey (1986) show about dog and bird breeders?
They found similar recognition patterns with dogs and birds as humans
What is the effect called when a person's brain activates to their expert area in the same way as it does to faces?