Autonomic and Endocrine 1 L14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Autonomic and Endocrine 1 L14 Deck (100):
1

What is the organisation and role of the Nervous System?

Composed of the CNS + PNS
Collects information and helps to respond to that information
CNS --> PNS
-the CNS gets information From and sends information Out To the PNS

2

What is the organisation and role of the Peripheral Nervous System PNS?

PNS
All the nervous tissue which radiates out of/Outside the CNS
Collects information and talks information out
Composed of 4x features:
1. Cranial Nerves
2. Spinal Nerves
3. Ganglia
4. Peripheral Nerves

3

What are the 4x components of the PNS?

1. Cranial Nerves
2. Spinal Nerves
3. Ganglia
4. Peripheral Nerves

4

What are features of the Cranial Nerve?

12x pairs of cranial nerves

5

What are features of the Spinal Nerves?

31x pairs
Radiate out from the spinal cord

6

What are features of the Ganglia?

Ganglion = singular
Mass of Nervous Tissue (cell bodies)
"switching bodies"

7

What are switching bodies called?

Ganglia

8

What are features of the Peripheral Nerves?

fine nerves

9

What is the organisation and role of the Central Nervous System CNS?

CNS
Processes many kinds of Sensory information
The sources of Thoughts, emotions and Memories
"The think of all my emotional memories"
Composed of 2x features:
1. Brain
2. Spinal Cord
-connected by the Foramun Magnum

10

What 3x things is the Central Nervous System CNS the source of?

1. Thoughts
2. Emotions
3. Memories
"I Think of all my Emotional Memories"

11

What is the CNS (Brain and Spinal Cord) connected by?

Foreamun Magnum

12

What is the Foreamun Magnum?

Connects the CNS (Brain and Spinal Cord)

13

What can cranial or spinal nerves be?

Sensory afferent or Motor efferent neurons

14

How does the PNS provide input into the CNS?

Sensory Afferent Neurons
INput Sensory
PNS --> CNS
Sensation
Autonomic/somatic Receptors Detect stimuli and Collect information

15

How are Sensory and Motor nerves connected?

Via Cranial and spinal nerves

16

How does the CNS provide OUTput to the PNS?

Motor Efferent Neurons
OUTput Motor
CNS --> PNS
Motor
Causes Change/Action in the body
1. Somatic
2. Autonomic
Somatic: control is Conscious and Voluntary. Controlled by Cerebral Cortex. Innervates Skeletal Muscle. Causes Change in body Position/Structure
Autonomic: control is Unconscious and Involuntary. composed of 2x elements which cause Opposing responses. Sympathetic + Parasympathetic. Both alter body In Response to Changed Circumstances. Effects 3x : Cardiac muscle, Smooth muscle, and Glands - and around blood vessels. Allows us to keep living under changing conditions. Work at balancing one another. Seesaw relationship. Never is Either automatic component totally off, instead is "Dimmer" control.

17

What are 2x types of features of the Motor Efferent Neurons?

1. Somatic
2. Autonomic

18

What are features of the Somatic Motor Efferent Output Neurons?

Conscious control
Voluntary control
Controlled by the Cerebral cortex
Innervates Skeletal Muscle
Causes change in body Position and Structure

19

What are features of the Autonomic Motor Efferent Output Neurons?

Un/Non-conscious control
INvoluntary control
Consists of 2x elements (parasympathetic and sympathetic) which Causes Opposing responses
Both alter the body is Response to Changed Circumstances
Effects 3x areas:
1. cardiac muscle
2. Smooth muscle
3. Glands - and around blood vessels
Allows us to keep living under changing conditions
Works at balancing one another
Seesaw Realtionship
Never is either autonomic component Totally off, instead is "Dimmer" control

20

Where are the 3x area of the body which can be controlled by the Autonomic Nervous system?

1. Cardiac Muscle
2. Smooth Muscle
3. Glands - and around blood vessels

21

What is the role of nerves?

Nerves:
1. Co-ordinate Actions
2. Co-ordinate bodily functions

22

What are the 5x components of All neuron's fundamental structure?

1. Dendrites
2. Cell body and nucleus
3. Axon
4. Myelin Sheath
5. Axon Terminals

23

What are key features of dendrites?

Spikey parts of cytoplasm
Radiating out of cell body
function by Receiving APs

24

What are key features of Axons?

Are extensions of Cytoplasm
Transmits APs
Very Long - in order to be able to Transfer information to distant/remote sites
Hardwired to communicate with any parts of out body

25

What are key features of Axon Terminals?

Bulbs at end of Jason
Link with 2x options:
1. Other/2nd Neuron
2. Tissues : and therefore alter their functions (e.g. muscle relaxation/contraction)

26

Where are the cell bodies of peripheral nerves?

Peripheral nerves have cell bodies Outside of the spinal cord

27

What are key features of Myelin sheath?

Insulating
Conducting
Protective Layer
Some axons but not all axons have
All nerves are either Myelinated or Unmyelinated

28

What are key features of Myelinated nerves?

Axon has a Schwann cell/Oligodendrocyte membrane which is Integrally wrapped around the axon
The axon is in the middle
The sheets contain the Protein Myelin
4x components: Axon, Myelin sheath, Schwann cell, Schwann cell nucleus

29

What are key features of Unmyelinated nerves?

LESS intimate association with Schwann cell/Myelin
Schwann cells is associated with with the cell but is NOT integrally wrapped around one axon
2x components: Axons and Schwann cell

30

What are the 5x steps to Nerve Synapses/AP Transmission?

1. Nerve impulse travels down
2. Presynaptic neuron's membrane channels Ca2+ change structure due to the change in voltage. This opens the voltage gated Ca2+ channels allowing Ca2+ influx
3. Influx of Ca2+ promotes the neurotransmitter containing vesicles to empty into the synaptic cleft. Done by fusing with the membrane and released the neurotransmitters. Fast diffusion of neurotransmitters.
4. the neurotransmitters bind to the ligand gated Na+ channels on the postsynaptic neuron's membrane. Opens the channels. Na+ passes into the Postsynaptic neuron
5. Change in voltage, conducts a nerve impulse down the post synaptic neuron
-happens with BIH a 2nd neuron and/or another tissue to change their function/action (e.g. muscle relation/contraction)

31

What are the 4x components which allow rapid Ap Transduction across Nerve Synapses?

1. an electric impulse moves fast
2. synaptic cleft is a smalle gap
3. neurotransmitter diffusion is fast
4. Na+ influx is fast, so cases fast transmission

32

How do Nervous and endocrine systems function together?

Keep Homeostasis
Nervous and Endocrine systems functions in a co-oridinated manner
To achieve and maintain Stability of the Internal environment (Homeostasis)
Collect information and send information out (slow and fast) to Change out body structure/actions
Both systems perform their functions by means of chemical messengers sent to specific cells

33

Via which medium do Nervous and Endocrine systems perform their functions?

Both systems perform their functions by a mean so of Chemical Messengers which are sent to Specific Cells

34

What are the major differences between Autonomic and Endocrine systems?

Autonomic NS: NEURONS send NEUROTRANSMITTER chemical messengers to specific target tissues which are NEARBY (moderate changes)
vs
Endocrine NS: SECRETORY CELLS send HORMONE molecules through the BLOOD STREAM to specific target tissues THROUGHOUT the body

35

What is the overall manner and function of the Autonomic Nervous system?

autonomic nervous system consists of NEURONS which send NEUROTRANSMITTER chemical messengers to specific target tissues NEARBY (moderate changes)

36

What is the overall manner and function of the Endocrine Nervous system?

endocrine nervous system consists of SECRETORY CELLS which send HORMONE molecules through the BLOOD STREAM to specific target tissues THROUGHOUT the body

37

What type if chemical messenger is used in the autonomic nervous system?

Neurotransmitter

38

What type if chemical messenger is used in the endocrine nervous system?

Hormone

39

Where does the chemical messengers (neurotransmitter) of the Autonomic nervous system go to?

from neurons to NEARBY tissues

40

Where does the chemical messengers (hormones) of the endocrine nervous system go to?

from secretory cells to Distal tissues/Through Bloodstream, to tissues THROUGHOUT the body

41

What type of system is the Autonomic system?

Self governing system
Automatic, don't have a lot of control over
Adapting/changing continually to every component around us
Seesaw relationship
Inducible system - dimmer control
-can be Unregulated and down regulated as necessary
Adaptive response, designed to kick in readily to allow for 1. rapid action to escape danger, and then 2. to calm down

42

What doe both the sympathetic and parasympathetic system do?

Regulate the function of our body
Help our body adapt/change to changing surroundings/ environment

43

What are the 3x Sympathetic division associated responses?

XMX
1. eXercise
2. eMotion
3. eXcitement
" I exercise a lot of emotional excitement"

44

What are the 3x Parasympathetic division associated responses?

PLS
1. RePletion
2. ReLaxation
3. ReSt

45

What is a name for the sympathetic division response?

The alarm response
There fight, flight or flight response

46

What is the name of the para sympathetic division response?

The relaxation response
The Post lunch digestion/relaxation

47

What are the 6x main body areas affected by the Autonomic nervous system?

HE'S GLuM
1. Heart
2. Eyes
3. Skin
4. Gut
5. Lungs
6. Mouth
opposing affects in alarm vs relaxation response
7. BS (blood sugar levels/conversion)
8. BPH (blood pressure and water levels)

48

How are the 6x main body areas + 2affects by the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous system?

1. Heart: Increase rate and increased force of contraction
2. Eyes: Pupils dilate. More aware of surrounding, Get more information quicker and easier
3. Skin: a. Paler/Constrict peripheral blood vessels (pushes blood to muscles an key areas (central)) b. contract arrestor plimsoles (hairs stand one end, cat looks threatening) c. increase in sweat secretion (more evaporation, more heat remover, cools body down)
4. Gut: Decrease digestion (not a short termpriority.is a long term process and is energetic process. therefore avoids energy used from stein wasteful)
5. Lungs: Dilate Bronchi (allows for more 02 oxygen to flow and allows more Exchange of Air and CO2)
6. Mouth: Decreased Saliva/salivation (saliva aids digestion, which is a longterm process, therefore conserves energy to be used elsewhere to aid escape)
7. BS: increased blood sugar levels - energy for escape. more glycogen convert back into glucose. greater need for glucose in respiration to form ATP
8. BPH: increased Blood Pressure and Increase Water retention - Change Kidney function to retain water. BP increased to a faster rate due to increased H2O leaves.

49

What happens to the Heart in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Alarm response?

1. Heart: Increase rate and increased force of contraction

50

What happens to the Eyes in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Alarm response?

2. Eyes: Pupils dilate. More aware of surrounding, Get more information quicker and easier

51

What happens to the Skin (3x components) in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Alarm response?

3. Skin:
a. Paler/Constrict peripheral blood vessels (pushes blood to muscles an key areas (central))
b. contract arrestor plimsoles (hairs stand one end, cat looks bigger and more threatening) -defence against a potential threat - + hissing, shouldn't be attacked as readily
c. increase in sweat secretion (more evaporation, more heat remover, cools body down)

52

What happens to the Gut in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Alarm response?

4. Gut: Decrease digestion (not a short termpriority.is a long term process and is energetic process. therefore avoids energy used from stein wasteful)

53

What happens to the Lungs in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Alarm response?

5. Lungs: Dilate Bronchi (allows for more 02 oxygen to flow and allows more Exchange of Air and CO2)

54

What happens to the Mouth in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Alarm response?

6. Mouth: Decreased Saliva/salivation (saliva aids digestion, which is a longterm process, therefore conserves energy to be used elsewhere to aid escape)

55

What happens to the Blood Sugar levels in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Alarm response?

7. BS: increased blood sugar levels - energy for escape. more glycogen convert back into glucose. greater need for glucose in respiration to form ATP

56

What happens to the Blood Pressure and Water levels in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Alarm response?

8. BPH: increased Blood Pressure and Increase Water retention - Change Kidney function to retain water. BP increased to a faster rate due to increased H2O leaves.

57

How are the 6x main body areas affected by the Para-Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous system?

1. Heart = Decrease Rate and Decreased force of contraction
2. Eyes = pupils contract
3. Skin = Dilation of the peripheral blood vessels (more peripheral blood flow) - more blood flow into tissues and cellular areas
4. Gut = increased digestion
5. Lungs = Bronchi Constrict - as don't need to take in as much O2 oxygen and don't ned to breath as rapidly
6. Mouth = increased Saliva - allows for the regeneration of activities such as digestion and repair
-is a Deactivating action as it move into a Rest and Relaxation response

58

What happens to the Heart in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Relaxation response?

1. Heart = Decrease Rate and Decreased force of contraction

59

What happens to the Eyes in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Relaxation response?

2. Eyes = pupils contract

60

What happens to the Skin in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Relaxation response?

3. Skin = Dilation of the peripheral blood vessels (more peripheral blood flow) - more blood flow into tissues and cellular areas

61

What happens to the Gut in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Relaxation response?

4. Gut = increased digestion

62

What happens to the Lungs in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Relaxation response?

5. Lungs = Bronchi Constrict - as don't need to take in as much O2 oxygen and don't ned to breath as rapidly

63

What happens to the Mouth in the Autonomic Nervous system's Heart Relaxation response?

6. Mouth = increased Saliva - allows for the regeneration of activities such as digestion and repair

64

What is a similarity between the system operation of the Voluntary Somatic nervous system and Involuntary Autonomic nervous system?

the somatic nervous system (voluntary control) AND the autonomic nervous system (Involuntary control) are BOTH INDUCIBLE systems - can be turned on and off
Dependant on demand/when needed/adaptivity to changing circumstances
-can Up and Down regulate

65

What are the Components, Sensory Input, Control of output, Effectors, Motor Neuron Pathway and Neurotransmitter(s) of the Somatic Nervous system?

spinal cord ventral horn --> Myelinated motor neuron --> motor end plate + synapse --> ACh --> Skeletal effector muscle
1. Sensory input : Special senses and Somatic senses
2. Control of Output: Voluntary from the cerebral cortex
3. Effector: Skeletal Muscle
4. Motor Neuron Pathway: One neuron pathway (myelinated out to the target cell they effect)
5. Neurotransmitter: ACh always

66

What is the sensory input for the Somatic nervous system?

1. Special senses
2. somatic senses

67

What are the Components, Sensory Input, Control of output, Effectors, Motor Neuron Pathway and Neurotransmitter(s) of the Autonomic Nervous system?

spinal cord --> Myelinated Preganglionic motor neuron --> Ganglion switching station --> NONmyelinated Postganglionic motor neuron --> motor end plate + synapse --> ACh OR NE --> Cardiac, Smooth or Gland Effector Tissue
1. Sensory Input : Mainly Interoceptors (internal sensing) + some special senses
2. Control of Output : Involuntary, Centred more deeply in the brain from the Limbic system, Brain, hypothalamus, and spinal cord
3. Effectors: Smooth muscle (contraction and relaxation), Cardiac Muscle (increased or decreased force and rate of contraction)
Glands (increased of decreased Secretion)
4. Motor Neuron Pathway: Two neuron pathway
5. Neurotransmitter: Sympathetic - mostly NE on second synapse, vs only exception sympathetic sweat glands only= ACh. Parasympathetic = ACh on both ganglion and second synapse always

68

What is the sensory input for the Autonomic Nervous system?

Mainly Interoceptors (internal sensing)
some special senses

69

What is the control of output for the Somatic nervous system?

Voluntary
from the Cerebral Cortex

70

What is the control of output of the Autonomic nervous system?

Involuntary
Located Deeper in the brain from the:
1. Limbic system
2. Brain
3. Hypothalamus
4. Spinal Cord

71

What is the Nervous Autonomic Sympathetic pathway to Most effector Tissues?

1. Myelinated sympathetic Preganglionic neuron (cholinergic) ---->
2. Ganglion switching station) (nicotinic receptors)
ACh
3. Unmyelinated sympathetic Postganglion neuron (adrenergic) --->
NA/NE
4. Effector (smooth, cardiac, gland) cell (Adrenergic receptors)

72

What is the Nervous Autonomic Sympathetic pathway to Sweat Glands?

1. Myelinated sympathetic Preganglionic neuron (cholinergic) ---->
2. Ganglion (switching station) (nicotinic receptors)
ACh
3. Unmyelinated sympathetic Postganglionic neuron (cholinergic) --->
ACh
4. Effector Sweat gland cell (Muscarinic receptor)

73

What is the Nervous Autonomic Parasympathetic pathway to all effector tissues?

1. Myelinated para-sympathetic Preganglionic neuron (cholinergic) --->
2. Ganglion (switching station) (nicotinic receptor)
ACh
3. Unmelinated Postganglionic Parasympathetic neuron (cholinergic) -->
ACh
4. Effector (smooth, cardiac, gland) cell (muscarinic receptor)

74

What is the technical name of the Nervous Autonomic Sympathetic pathway to Most effector Tissues?

1. cholinergic
ACh
2. nicotinic receptor
3. adrenergic
NA/NE
4.adrenergic receptor

75

What is the technical name of the Nervous Autonomic Sympathetic pathway to exclusively Sweat glands?

1. cholinergic
ACh
2. nicotinic receptors
3. cholinergic
ACh
4. muscarinic receptors

76

What is the technical name of the Nervous Autonomic Para Sympathetic pathway to All effector Tissues?

1. Cholinergic
ACh
2. Nicotinic receptor
3. Cholinergic
ACh
4. Muscarinic receptor

77

What are some key features of the hypothalamus?

Controls the Internal organs vie the autonomic system and Pituitary glands
-is central to the hormonal/endocrine system
Controls both the Autonomic and Endocrine system
Located at the base of the brain
5x regulator actions:
1. Behavioural patterns
2. Circadian rhythms (as we go through changing patterns)
3. Sleep/Wake cycles
4. Body temperature
5. Eating (hunger) and drinking (thirst) behaviour
Regulation = not always conscious of = don't have a lot of voluntary control over

78

How doe the Hypothalamus control Internal organs?

Via 2x things:
1. Autonomic system
2. Pituitary gland
-is central to the hormonal/endocrine system

79

What 5x key things does the hypothalamus control whilst trying to maintain homeostasis?

5x regulatory activities
1. Behavioural patterns
2. Circadian rhythms ( as we go through changing patterns)
3. Sleep/Wake cycles
4. Body temperature
5. Eating (hunger) and Drinking (thirst) behaviour
Regulation = not always conscious of = don't have a lot of voluntary control over

80

What are key features of the endocrine system?

2x Functions:
1. Secretes hormones
2. Responds
Uses the bloodstreams as it's means of transporting it's hormones
Slower impact = seconds - to Minutes to have an impact/cause change/response/action - due to reliance on blood stream for transport/dispersion
Contains the HPA axis which is the Trunk of the Endocrine system

81

What are the 13 components taught of the endocrine system?

1. Hypothalamus H
2. Pineal gland
3. Pituitary P
4. Thyroid (around larynx and growth hormone production)
5. Skin
6. Thymus (under sternum)
7. Heart
8. Stomach
9. Liver -digestion
10. 2x Adrenal Glands A
11. Pancreas (very important digestive organ)
12. Kidneys
13. Gonads (testes and ovaries)

82

What are hormones?

Hormones are messengers/molecules which are central to our bodily functions, via affecting the functions of organs/cells, and are sent as molecular information in our blood flow
(cells produce hormones as they are central when controlling our body)
Difference with hormones = distance from production sites to receptor
hormones can either be -Circulating hormones or Local hormones
3x Types of Hormones/ Producing cells:
1. endocrine -circulating hormone
2. paracrine -local hormone
3. autocrine -local hormone
Affects cells function

83

What are the 3x types of hormones/producing cells?

1. Endocrine
2. Paracrine
3. Autocrine

84

What are features of the Endocrine hormone/producing cell?

Circulating Hormone
Diffusion of circulating endocrine hormone as it travels through the blood in a capillary
Production of a endocrine hormone that affects something at a distal site/target cell, with a specific endocrine hormone receptor
Affects the cells function

85

What are features of the Paracrine hormone/producing cell?

Local Hormone
Diffusion of Local hormone
Receptor is in close proximity/nearby to Paracrine cell (nearby target cell) with specific paracrine hormone receptor
Affects the cells function

86

What are features of the Autocrine hormone/producing cell?

Local Hormone
Autocrine hormone is produced by own cell and acts back on itself/its own cell, as the Autocrine cells is its Own target cell, with its own specific autocrine target cell receptor
Affects the cells function

87

What sort of system is the control of hormone release?

Inducible system
organs respond to change

88

What 5x major steps does the control of hormone release involve?

1. Synthesis -> storage -> release (hormone producing cell)
-->
2. Blood stream (transport/dispersion)
-->
3. Desired response (Target cell with a Specific hormone receptor. No receptor=no affect=no response/behavioural change)
-->
4a. Potential for Hormone Disposal (breakdown + secretion) - reduces the amount of hormones in circulation
-->
4b. Feedback signal (usually Negative -ve) -"Yes I HAVE responded. STOP making more hormones"
Note: Longer time course of response (seconds or minutes) vs millisecond ms autonomic response)

89

What is the rate of response in the Autonomic system?

ms
very rapid / fast

90

What are the 2x exemplary clinical conditions of an effected autonomic and endocrine system?

1. Cholera - endocrine - chronic over activation of Hormonal system
2. Raynaud disease - maladaptive -excess/long term activation of the sympathetic system - illustrates the importance of down regulation

91

What are the key features of the clinical implication of Cholera?

Endocrine system
Cholera is the Chronic Activation of the Hormonal system
1. Bacterium of cholera (common in the tropics) produces a toxin (Choleratoxin) which gets into the Crypts between the Intestinal villi of the Small intestine
2. The cholera toxin Binds irreversible to the normally inducible hormone receptor's G-protein, in the epithelial cells lining your intestine
3. Locks the normally inducible G protein into an activated state
4. Increased cAMP second messenger activation (which is normally just activated under the influence of various hormones)
5. Pumps Cl- Chloride ions Out of the body/bloodstream into the Intestinal Lumen
6. Water H2O Follows the Cl- and flows out into the intestinal Lumen too (to maintain Osmolarity)
7. Chronic Diarrhoea
-Normally have hormones activating and deactivating this pathway
-but irreversible binding of bacteria's toxin to G protein cases chronic over activation --> chronic diarrhoea (runny poos)

92

What are the key features of the clinical implication of Raynaud Disease?

Autocrine system
Excessive/too long/prolonged activation of the sympathetic system stimulation
(excess associated response of XMX exercise, emotion (STRESS), excitement)
Occurs due to 2x reasons:
Emotional stress / exposure to Cold
Results in chronic vasoconstriction
-because as part of the alarm response/sympathetic activity there is decreased blood in the periphery, pushing blooding our internal structures (centre)
Constricts the Peripheral Capillaries - so the blood doesn't flow to the periphery capillaries at all
Extremities (fingers and toes) because ISCHAEMIC and COLD to touch
ISCHEMIA is the Lack of Blood supply
Lack/No Blood/ Oxygen and Nutrients into the extremity tissues
No co2 ir waste products out
fingers and toes are cold to touch due to no blood which carries the Body Temperatures
-shows the importance of Down-regulation, as to not keep under the stress response for too long

93

What are the 2x things which can cause Raynaud Disease?

1. emotional Stress (excess sympathetic emotion association skin vasoconstriction)
2.Exposure to Cold

94

What are the 2x consequences of Raynaud disease?

1. Ischemia in Extremities- Lack of blood supply - no o2 or nutrients in and no co2 or waste products out
2. Cold Extremities - as no body temperature as no blood

95

What are 6x examples of Lipid soluble hormones?

1. Steroid hormones
-a. cortisol
-b. anoligens
-c. aldosterone
5. Thyroid Hormones
6. Nitrous Oxide

96

What are the 4x main steps of the mechanism of action of Lipid soluble hormones?

Must have a Soluble Transport Protein
1. Lipid soluble hormone diffuses into the cell across the Phospholipid bilayer
2.Activated receptor-hormone-complex alters gene expression - trueness specific genes of the DNA one/off via Transcription making the mRNA
-Has to be a specific hormone receptor in the nucleus, otherwise no response
3. Newly formed mRNA direct a different synthesis of specific proteins on ribosomes
4. New proteins ALTER the (target) cells' activity

97

What are the Transport proteins of Lipid soluble hormones like?

Soluble transport protein
allows for transportation of the otherwise lipid soluble water insoluble protein through the aqueous solution blood is

98

What are the 6x main steps of the mechanism of action of Lipid soluble hormones?

Do not need transporter. Can diffuse through (blood vessel)
1.Binding to the hormone (1st messenger) to its Surface receptor activates the intercytoplasmic G protein which in turn activates adenylate cyclase
2. Activated adenylate cyclase converts ATP --> cAMP (the second messenger)
3. cAMP serves as a 2nd messenger --> to activate other protein kinases
4. Activated protein kinases Phosphorylate other enzymes using ATP
5. These phosphorylated enzymes now Catalyse reaction which produce physiological responses (1. phosphorylation. 2. the way proteins work) : i.e. Alters the Metabolic (enzymatic and physiological behaviour) Network of the cell
6. After a time period Phosphodiesterase inactivates cAMP (the 2nd messenger) - take away = revert back
overall highlights how this is an inducible system

99

What inactivates the mechanism of action of water soluble hormones?

Enzyme Phosphodiesterase
inactivates cAMP specifically
reverts back
aswell
-illustrates how it is an inducible system: upon taking away the hormone, the system just reverts back

100

What are 3x examples of Water soluble hormones?

1.Catecholamines -(NE and E)
2. peptides
3. proteins