Male Reproductive Organs L18 Flashcards Preview

Medsci 142 Test 1 > Male Reproductive Organs L18 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Male Reproductive Organs L18 Deck (144):
1

What are testes?

a Pair of oval glands which are found in the scrotum
Testes DO NOT originate in the scrotum, but instead are formed in the Abdomen in the fetus and humans
Testes move to the scrotum from the pelvis During Last Month of pregnancy - low temperatures os the tests can survive
Testes which do not descend = cryptorchidism
"Crypt"= hidden "Orchid"=testes
Cryptorchid individuals are Infertile (due to testes losing their ability to produce sperm by not being in the scrotum) and are At Risk of testicular cancer
1-3 % of all babies are cryptorchid, then most of these baby's testes descend a few weeks after birth

2

Where are testes located?

Scrotum
DO NOT ORIGINATE in the scrotum. instead originate in the abdomen. move from pelvis to scrotum during the Last month of pregnancy (when there is low temperatures so the testes can survive)

3

What happens if testes don't descend from the abdomen to the scrotum?

Cryptorchidism
"Crypt"=hidden "Orchid"=testes
Cryptorchid individuals are Infertile (due to testes losing their ability to produce sperm by not being in the scrotum) and are At Risk of testicular cancer
1-3 % of all babies are cryptorchid, then most of these baby's testes descend a few weeks after birth

4

What percentage of babies are cryptorchid?

1-3 % of all babies are cryptorchid, then most of these baby's testes descend a few weeks after birth

5

Where is the site of sperm production?

Scrotum
which contains the testes
which contain the seminiferous tubules

6

What is the 9x stage route of the Testes and Ducts, all located in the Scrotum?

1. Sperm are produced in the Seminiferous Tubules
2. Sperm then move into the Rete Testis (the Rete testes is an area where all the seminiferous tubules Join to form a single duct and collecting system) --> Afferent tubule
3.Sperm then move into the Epididymis- which is a single tube (sperm mature here (10-14days) going form head --> tail)
4. Sperm then move into the Vas Deferens
5. Sperm then store in the Ampulla of ductus/Vas deferens
6. Sperm is joined into the Ejaculatory duct
7. Urethra
8. Penis
9. Exit
Seminiferous tubule --> Rete Tesis --> Epididymis --> Ductus Vas Deferens --> Ampulla of ductus vas deferens --> Ejaculatory duct --> Urethra --> Penis --> Exit

7

What is the Rete Testis?

Sperm move into the Rete Testis from the Seminiferous Tubules
Rete Testis is an area where All the Seminiferous tubules Join
The Rete Testis forms a Single duct and a Collecting system
Afferent Tubule

8

What 2x things does the Rete testis form?

1. Single duct
2. Collecting system- where all the semeniferous tubules come together
Afferent Tubule

9

What sort of Tubule is the Rete testis?

Afferent Tubule

10

For how long does sperm mature in the Epididymis?

Sperm mature in the Rete Testis for 10-14days
moving from head --> tail

11

what is the overall pathway of sperm form production to complete ejection?

1. Lumen Seminiferous tubules in tests in scrotum for production --> 2. Rete Testis --> 3. Epididymis --> 4. Ductus Vas Deferens --> 5. Ampulla of Ductus Vas Deferens --> 6. Ejaculatory Duct --> 7. Urethra --> 8. Penis --> 9. Exit

12

How do sperm move in the Seminiferous tubules?

Move via the liquid secreted by sertoli cells
Sperm are Not capable of swimming yet until they have matured in the epididymis.
They're also not capable of fertilising an egg

13

Can IVF by used on sperm when they first exit the seminiferous tubule?

No
As these sperm are incapable of swimming, and are also incapable of fertilising
therefore only a biopsy of the testes to get these sperm for ICSI would be effective

14

What are the capabilities of sperm when they first enter the lumen of the seminiferous tubule?

Unable to swim
Unable to fertilise

15

How long does it take for a sperm to acquire the abilities of (motility) swimming and fertilisation in the epididymis (essential for sperm maturation to occur)?

10-14 days

16

What is the pathway for sperm maturation?

straight tubule --> rete testis --> efferent duct --> Head of epididymis --> Tail of epidiymis

17

What 2x things does the epididymis do?

1. sperm maturation (10-14 days) (motility and fertilisation)
2. Concentrates sperm by absorbing the liquid.this liquid is currently pushing the immotile sperm, but now want all the sperm to be in a smaller volume so it can be pushed further. 5x10^7 sperm/mL --x100--> 5x10^9 sperm/mL. This allows the ejaculate to be thicker and more viscous. Ejaculate therefore has maximum concentration of sperm, maximising chances of fertility.

18

What are the changes in sperm concentration from the head to the tail of the epididymis?

5x10^7 sperm/mL ---100x---> 5x10^9 sperm/mL
-ejaculate is now thicker and more viscous, with max conc. of sperm to maximise chances of fertility

19

What is a sagittal section?

vertical place which passes through the body from anterior --> posterior
Divides the body into Right and Left halves

20

What are 5x main features of the ductus Vas Deferens?

1. sperm move to the vas deferens from the epididymis and are Stored here for Several months (proximal --> ampulla). Exit = ejaculation or leak out
2. Storage = several Months
3. about 45cm long. From the Epididymis --> Ejaculator duct
4. Convoluted tube: Up and around the bladder --> behind the bladder --> down to the ejaculatory duct/lower pelvis
5. Near the ejaculatory duct there is a widening of the 45cm vas deferens when it is behind the pelvis, called the Ampulla. Ampulla is a large site of sperm storage. This allows the sperm to be stored and ready to be immediately expelled by the penis.

21

How long is storage of sperm in the ductus vas deferens?

Several months

22

How long is the ductus vas deferens?

45 cm long
Is a convoluted tube:
Up and around the bladder, behind the bladder, down to the ejaculatory duct/lower pelvis

23

Whast sort of tube is the vas deferens?

Convoluted tube.
45 cm long
goes Up and around the bladder --> behind the bladder --> down to the ejaculatory duct/Lower pelvis

24

Where is the ampulla located?

Widening at the end of the vas deferens, near the ejaculatory duct
is a large site of sperm storage, so can be stored and then be immediately expelled from the penis

25

What is the role of the ampulla

Widening of vas deferens, the be a large site of sperm storage.
Is at the end, close to the ejaculatory duct, so can be stored and then immediately expelled from the penis

26

What is the role of the Urethra?

1.The seminal vesicles empty into the epididymis and then ejaculator duct, which joins the urethra at the prostate
2. Urethra is about 20cm long
3. Urethra runs from the Bladder --> end/external urethral orifice of the penis
4. Located through the middle of the donut shaped prostate

27

What is the length of the urethra?

20cm long

28

Where does the urethra run from?

Bladder --> end/external urethral orifice

29

Where is the Urethra located?

Through the middle of the donut shaped prostate gland

30

What are the 3x main ducts of the male reproductive tract?

1. Epididymis
2. Ductus vas Deferens
3. Urethra

31

What are the 2x main accessory glands?

1. Seminal Vesicles
2. Prostate Gland
Both are secretory glands

32

What are the main features of the Prostate gland?

Seminal Vesicles are Secretory glands (not storage) that secrete a mucoid/sticky substance, which contains 1. Alkaline, 2. Fructose, 3. Prostaglandins, 4. Clotting proteins
The contents of the seminal vesicle are emptied --> into the Ejaculatory duct directly, after the sperm is ejected by the vas deferens, and washes (last fluid secretion) sperm down in the ejaculatory duct

33

Where is the last fluid secretion on sperm?

In the ejaculatory duct
Washes sperm down

34

What sort of gland is the Seminal vesicles?

Secretory gland (not storage)
Secretes a sticky/mucoid substance. which contains 1.alkalinity, 2.fructose, 3.prostaglandins, 4. clotting proteins

35

What is the importance of the Seminal Vesicle fluid's Alkalinity?

Means Seminal vesicle fluid has a High pH - basic
In order to Neutralise the acidity of the female reproductive/vaginal tract (pH 4.5)
This allows it to buffer the environment the sperm are in

36

What is the pH of the female reproductive/vaginal tract?

acidic
pH 4.5

37

What is the pH of seminal vesicle fluid?

Basic/alkaline
therefore high/above 7

38

What is the importance of the Seminal Vesicle fluid's Fructose?

Energy source for sperm
sperm shed their bodies earlier of excess/unhydrodynamic extra contents (cytoplasm, proteins, aa, fats, ribosomes) into residual bodies
Without these extras, Fructose acts as a Energy source for sperm

39

What is the energy source of sperm?

Fructose in seminal vesicle fluid

40

What is the importance of the Seminal Vesicle fluid's Prostaglandins?

Lipid hormone
may Induce smooth muscle contractions in the female reproductive tract
This helps to move sperm up the reproductive tract
Sperm are Pushed faster> than they can swim

41

What type of hormones are prostaglandins?

lipid (soluble) hormone

42

What INDUCES smooth muscle contractions in the female reproductive tract?

Prostaglandins
located in the seminal vesicle fluid

43

What is the importance of the Seminal Vesicle fluid's Clotting Proteins?

Similar to blood clotting proteins
AFTER semen is ejaculated, the components of the semen (sticky mucoid seminal vesicular fluid + milky prostatic fluid) MIX and CLOT --> to forms a coagulant
This coagulant allows the sperm/ejaculate to stick into the vagina/forms coagulant which Holds/Retains the semen in the reproductive tract after ejaculation, and therefore wont be flushed out by mass flow
Coagulant only lasts for 10-15 min

44

What are the physical features of seminal vesicle fluid?

thick, sticky and mucoid

45

What forms a coagulant and when?

thick,sticky mucoid seminal vesicular fluid + semen + milky prostatic fluid MIX and CLOT together, AFTER semen is ejaculated, to form a coagulant

46

What is the role of the clotting proteins (causing) coagulant feature of seminal vesicle fluid?

Allows the sperm/ejaculate to stick/hold/retain the semen in the reproductive tract after ejaculation,
Therefore the semen wont be flushed out by mass flow
Coagulant only lasts for 10-15 min

47

How long does reproductive ejaculatory last for?

10-15 min
-broken down by PSA (protein specific antigen) in prostatic fluid

48

What are the main features of the prostate?

1. Prostate is a donut shaped organ
2. size of a gold ball
3.The urethra passes through the middle hole of the prostate (hence the name "prostatic urethra")
4. the prostate secretes Prostate fluid into the prostatic urethra BEFORE sperm and seminal vesicle fluid, during ejaculation
5. Prostatic fluid contains 1.slightly acidic 2. citrate 3.milky colour 4. Seminal vesicle fluid

49

What shape is the prostate?

donut shaped (hole in the middle for the urethra to fit through)
size of a golfball

50

What is the size of the prostate gland?

golf ball

51

What type of gland is the prostate gland?

secretory gland

52

Where is the urethra located?

runs through the middle of the prostate gland
-hence the urethra;s name the prostatic urethra

53

What is the order of ejaculatory content's exit through the external urethral orifice?

1. Prostatic fluid
2. semen
3. Seminal vesicle fluid

54

What is the importance of the Prostatic Vesicle fluid's Acidity?

pH slightly Low
Acidic
pH 6.5
has a slightly low pH so that is can act as a Buffer and be Neutralised by the alkaline the alkaline seminal vesicle fluid (to some extent) in semen (after ejaculation) not prior to mixing
Total buffering=6.5pH + alkaline sv fluid
7.5 ejaculate vs female reproductive tract 4.5 pH
Raises p very close to physiological neural (7.2-7.4ph (almost neutral)
-however pH is still slightly high/basic in order to buffer vaginal acidity
-buffering to optimise sperm's chances of fertilisaton

55

What is the pH of Prostatic fluid?

Slightly low
Acidic
6.5 pH

56

What is the overall buffering of ejaculate and female reproductive tract?

alkaline sv fluid + acidic 6.5 pH prostatic fluid
vs vaginal/reproductive tract 4,5 acidity
=together ejaculate = 7.5 pH vs vaginal 4.5 pH
Raises pH in the vagina close to neutral, as this is where the sperm need to swim, and therefore buffering to optimise sperm's chances of fertilisation
Physiologically neutral pH = 7.2-7,2
Note: Ejaculatory fluid is still slightly basic/ high pH/ about physiologically neurtral 7.2-7.4 pH, this allows the slightly high/basic ejaculatory fluid to continue buffering the female reproductive system

57

What is considered to be physiologically neutral pH?

7.2-7.4 pH:
In regards to reproduction/sperm/fertilisaitonNote: Ejaculatory fluid is still slightly basic/ high pH/ about physiologically neurtral 7.2-7.4 pH, this allows the slightly high/basic ejaculatory fluid to continue buffering the female reproductive system

58

What is the importance of Prostatic Vesicle fluid's Citrate?

Citrate is used for ATP
Citrate acts as an energy source -as it can Feed in the Kreb/Citrate cycle
Generates energy for sperm to propel itself through the female reproductive tract

59

Where is an alternative ATP energy supply for sperm?

Citrate located in Prostatic Fluid
Citrate feeds into the citrate/Kreb cycle and generate energy ATP
This ATP can be used to Propel itself through the female reproductive tract

60

What is the importance of Prostatic Vesicle fluid's Milky colour?

Prostatic Fluid's milky colour is due to the presence of Ca2+ and phosphate which ARENT very soluble - gives ejaculate its milky colour

61

What gives Ejaculate its milky colour?

Insoluble Phosphates and Calcium in Prostatic fluid

62

What is the importance of Prostatic Vesicle fluid's PSA?

PSA = Protein Specific Antigen and other Proteases
is an Enzyme
PSA is an enzyme which breaks down the mixed ejaculate coagulant and other proteases
Without PSA - a woman's reproductive tract would be clogged with sticky non-deteriorated ejaculate
Therefore the sperm would Remain Stuck in the coagulant ejaculate
Therefore PSA deteriorates the ejaculate coagulant , which therefore released sperm so they can swim and more through the reproductive tract freely without being trapped

63

What does PSA stand for?

Protein specific antigen

64

Biologically what is PSA (from prostatic fluid)?

an enzyme

65

Where does the function of PSA occur?

inside the female reproductive tract occur

66

What would happen if there was no PSA in prostatic fluid?

Female reproductive tract would be clogged with sticky, non-deteriorated ejaculate
Sperm will remain trapped in the coagulant
-Therefore PSA deteriorates the coagulant which therefore Releases sperm so they can swim (through the female reproductive tract freely and not trapped
-Breakdown is in the female Reproductive tract, Not in the penis

67

What is semen?

the ejaculated fluid/ejaculate

68

What is ejaculate?

semen

69

What does semen consist of?

60% seminal vesicle fluid (last to be ejaculated)
10% sperm (2nd to be ejaculated)
30% prostatic fluid (1st to exit external urethral orifice)
other secretions (from other secretory glands) small amounts

70

What is the proportion of seminal vesicle fluid in ejaculate?

60%
last to be ejaculated

71

What is the proportion of sperm in ejaculate?

10%
2nd to be ejaculated

72

What is the proportion of prostatic fluid in ejaculate?

30%
first to be ejaculated

73

What is the purpose behind the proportion and timing of seminal vesicle fluid's release?

60% seminal vesicular fluid allows the small and concentrated volume of sperm (due to reabsorption of fluid in epididymis) to be pushed easier/Further/Stronger/more readily
Therefore increasing the chance of fertilisaiton

74

What is the pH of semen?

about 7.5
slightly higher than neutral
still slightly alkaline to allow for:
allows for buffering of the opposingly acidic environment of the female's vagina/reproductive tract
-Prostatic and seminal vesicle fluid neutralise(7.2-7.4) eachother
-together buffers the vagina's acidic 4.5 pH

75

What are the 2x variations of semen between different species?

1. Ejaculatory Volume: human 2-5mL of ejaculated volume, boar 500mL (half a litre) of ejaculated volume
2. content: normal human male has 20 million sperm/per mL atleast

76

How does ejaculatory volume differ between species?

Human: 2-5mL of ejaculated volume
Boar: 500mL (half a litre) of ejaculated volume

77

What is the ejaculatory volume of a boar?

ejaculate has a volume of 500mL (half a litre) in boars

78

What are the three main structures of a penis?

1. Corpora cavernosa (2x)
2. Corpus spongeousum
3. Spongy (penile) urethra

79

What part of the penis consists of 2x of the same structures?

2x Corpora cavernosa's in the penis

80

What are the 3x main features of the corpora cavernosa?

1. 2x corpora cavernosa come down the CRUS of the penis
2. Is the main erectile tissue
3. has the Deep artery of the Penis within it

81

Where does the corpora cavernosa come down?

Both/2x corpora cavernosa come down the CRUS of the penis

82

What is the main erectile tissue of the penis?

Corpora cavernosa

83

Where is the deep artery of the penis located?

the Deep artery of the penis is within the Corpora Cavernosa

84

What are the three main structures of a penis?

1. Corpora cavernosa (2x)
2. Corpus spongeousum
3. Spongy (penile) urethra

85

What are the 3x main features of the Spongy Penile Urethra?

1. Conduct semen
2. Conducts urine
3. Circular structure
4. surrounded/encircled by the Corpus spongeosum, which avoids its occlusion upon the expansion and relaxation of corpora cavernosa during erection

86

What is urine conducted?

Through the Spongy Penile Urethra

87

What are the occurs during an erection?

increased blood flow --> decreased venous blood flow (due to Engorgement/build up of corpora cavernosa) --> ejaculation
1. erection follows/occurs due to sexual stimulation
2. There are NO BONES in the penis- only hydraulic forces (lots of hydraulic forces located in the corpora cavernosa)
3. Erection involves the release of NO (nitrous oxide)(released from endothelial cells of blood vessels) and (Prostaglandin E1) (released from all cells except RBCs). These are chemical mediators, which allow for the relaxation of the walls of the penis/corpora cavernosa
4. the release of NO and Prostaglandin E1 causes the Smooth muscle of the Corpora Cavernosa to Relax - this stretches/relaxes the Smooth muscle corpora cavernosa/wall - this makes it easier for More Blood Flow to enter the corpora cavernosa. The vessel is part of the Arteriolar circuit, therefore allows more blood to enter.
5. The blood fills the cavernous spaces of the corpora cavernosa, the erectile volume increase 8x fold. (erectile penis volume:flaccid penis volume) (8:1)
6. the corpora cavernosa, as the blood fills the cavernous spaces, its hydraulic pressure causes it to expand as outwards as possible, and then expands inwards.
7. The penile urethra nearly closes. But is saved by the Corpus Spongeosum which encircles it (is a circular structure and is erectile too).
8. The corpus spongeosum fills with blood too. This filling of blood by the corpus spongeosum allows it expand outwards, and therefore allows the penile urethra, which it encircles, to remain open (avoid its occlusion) even though the penis is engorged (build up)
9. The engorgement of the corpora cavernosa Reduces the venous blood outflow, which adds to the engorgement, as the surrounding veins are closed down by force
10. (increased Arterial blood flow) --> (lead to Engorgement/filling/build up of blood in corpora cavernosa) --> surrounding veins being closed by force --> reduced Venous blood flow --> Ejaculation

88

What is the main erectile tissue of the penis?

Corpora cavernosa

89

Where is the deep artery of the penis located?

the Deep artery of the penis is within the Corpora Cavernosa

90

What are the 3x main features of the Corpus spongeosum?

1. Encircles/surrounds the penile urethra
2. Prevents the occlusion of ejaculate during erection
3. Is also an erectile tissue

91

What does erection involve the release of?

Chemical mediators
1. NO nitrous oxide (released from endothelial cells of blood vessels)
2. Prostaglandin E1 (released from all cells except blood cells)
Allow for the relaxation of penis walls/Smooth muscleof the corpora cavernosa

92

What is released from endothelial cells of blood vessels during an erection?

NO nitrous oxide
-chemical mediator to allow for relaxation of penis walls (Smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa)

93

Where is NO nitrous oxide released from during and erection?

Endothelial cells of the BV blood vessels

94

What is released from all cells except RBCs during an erection?

Prostaglandin E1
-chemical mediator to allow for relaxation of penis walls (Smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa)

95

Are there any bones in the Penis?

NO
-the penis only contains Hydraulic forces - esp. in corpora cavernosa

96

What doesn't release Prostaglandin E1 during an erection?

RBCs Red Blood Cells
-all other cells release Prostaglandin E1 during an erection

97

What does erection involve the release of?

Chemical mediators
1. NO nitrous oxide (released from endothelial cells of blood vessels)
2. Prostaglandin E1 (released from all cells except blood cells)
Allow for the relaxation of penis walls/corpora cavernosa

98

What type of muscle is relaxed during an erection in the corpora cavernosa/walls of the penis, due to NO and Prostaglandin E1 release?

Smooth muscle

99

Where is NO nitrous oxide released from during erection?

Endothelial cells of the BV blood vessels

100

What is released from all cells except RBCs during an erection?

Prostaglandin E1
-chemical mediator to allow for relaxation of penis walls (corpora cavernosa)

101

Where is Prostaglandin E1 released from during an erection?

Prostaglandin E1 is released from all cells
Except RBCs

102

What is the shaping of the corpus spongeosum?

circular structure -encircles the penile urethra, and avoids the penile urethra's occlusion

103

What 2x main structures of the penis are erectile?

1. Corpora Cavernosa
2. Corpus Spongiosum

104

What type of muscle is relaxed during an erection in the corpora cavernosa/walls of the penis?

Smooth muscle

105

What is the function of the Corpus spongeosum during an erection?

1. It fills with blood
2. This filling of the blood in the corpus spongeosum allows the corpus spongeosum to expand outwards.
3. This allows the penile urethra, which it encircles, to Remain open (therefore avoiding its occlusion) even through the penis is engorged (built up/filled with blood)

106

What is the role of engorgement in relation to blood flow during an erection?

Decrease in Venous blood flow Out of the Penis
Increase in Arterial Blood flow Into the erectile tissue
The engorgement/build/filling up of blood, due to the increased Arterial blood flow into the corpora cavernosa Reduces the Venous blood flow Outflow, due to surrounding veins are closed down by force
This adds to the engorgement, as the surrounding veins are closed down by force
(increased Arterial blood flow) --> (lead to Engorgement/filling/build up of blood in corpora cavernosa) --> surrounding veins being closed by force --> reduced Venous blood flow --> Ejaculation

107

Succinctly what is the change in blood flow during an erection?

Decrease in Venous blood Flow Out of the Penis
Increase in Arterial blood flow Into the Erectile tissue

108

What are the main features of Viagra?

Induces an erection
chemical name = Sildenafil Citrate
The relaxation of the Smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa requires/must have the presence of cGMP Guanosine MonoPhosphate as a Second messenger
cGMP Guanosine MonoPhosphate, and is good for an erection, and is a Second messenger, required for the smooth muscle relaxation of the corpora cavernosa.
cGMP breaks down/reduces the intracellular levels of Ca2+ calcium for muscle relaxation (increased Ca2+ is bad for an erection)
cGMP is broken down by an enzyme called Phosphodiesterase Type 5 in the Vascular structures in the pelvis
Therefore: Decreased Phosphodiesterase Type 5 = Increased cGMP = low Ca2= increased corpora cavernosa smooth muscle relaxation = erection
What does Viagra do?
Viagra inhibits Phosphodiesterase Type 5. This results in: increased intercellular cGMP, decreased intracellular Ca2+ = increased relaxation = increased blood flow of Arteries/Blood structures which Supply the corpora cavernosa with blood = erection

109

What 2x main structures of the penis are erectile?

1. Corpora Cavernosa
2. Corpus Spongiosum

110

What 2x structures fill with blood during erection?

1. Corpora Cavernosa
2. Corpus Spongeosum

111

What is the function of the Corpus spongeosum during an erection?

1. It fills with blood
2. This filling of the blood in the corpus spongeosum allows the corpus spongeosum to expand outwards.
3. This allows the penile urethra, which it encircles, to Remain open (therefore avoiding its occlusion) even through the penis is engorged (built up/filled with blood)

112

What is the role of engorgement in relation to blood flow during an erection?

The engorgement/build/filling up of blood, due to the increased Arterial blood flow into the corpora cavernosa Reduces the Venous blood flow Outflow, due to surrounding veins are closed down by force
This adds to the engorgement, as the surrounding veins are closed down by force
- (increased Arterial blood flow) --> (lead to Engorgement/filling/build up of blood in corpora cavernosa) --> surrounding veins being closed by force --> reduced Venous blood flow --> Ejaculation

113

Succinctly what is the change in blood flow during an erection?

Decrease in Venous blood Flow Out of the Penis
Increase in Arterial blood flow Into the Erectile tissue

114

What are the main features of Viagra?

Induces an erection
chemical name = Sildenafil Citrate
The relaxation of the Smooth muscle of the corpora cavernosa requires/must have the presence of cGMP Guanosine MonoPhosphate as a Second messenger
cGMP Guanosine MonoPhosphate, and is good for an erection, and is a Second messenger, required for the smooth muscle relaxation of the corpora cavernosa.
cGMP breaks down/reduces the intracellular levels of Ca2+ calcium for muscle relaxation (increased Ca2+ is bad for an erection)
cGMP is broken down by an enzyme called Phosphodiesterase Type 5 in the Vascular structures in the pelvis
Therefore: Decreased Phosphodiesterase Type 5 = Increased cGMP = low Ca2= increased corpora cavernosa smooth muscle relaxation = erection
What does Viagra do?
Viagra inhibits Phosphodiesterase Type 5. This results in: increased intercellular cGMP, decreased intracellular Ca2+ = increased relaxation = increased blood flow of Arteries/Blood structures which Supply the corpora cavernosa with blood = erection

115

What is the purpose of viagra?

to induce an erection

116

What changes occur to Ca2+ during viagra?

Decreased intRAcellular levels of Ca2+

117

What enzyme is negative for/breaks down cGMP Guanosine MonoPhosphate ?

Phosphodiesterase Type 5

118

Where does the enzyme Phosphodiesterase Type 5 be negative for/break down cGMP Guanosine MonoPhosphate ?

in the vascular structures in the Pelvis

119

What is the role of the enzyme phosphodiesterase type 5?

to break down cGMP Guanosine mono phosphate
-NEGATIVE for an erection

120

What is the principal job of viagra?

Inhibit Phosphodiesterase Type 5 (from breaking down cGMP Guanosine MonoPhosphate)
-Decreased Phosphodiesterase Type 5 = Increased cGMP = low Ca2= increased corpora cavernosa smooth muscle relaxation = erection
- Inhibition of enzyme phosphodiesterase Type 5 = increased INTERcellular cGMP = decreased INTRAcellular Ca2+ = increased Relaxation of smooth muscle of corpora cavernosa = Increased blood flow through Arteries/Blood structures with supply the corpora cavernosa (into erectile tissue) = good erection

121

What changes occur to cGMP during viagra?

Increased intERcellular levels of cGMP

122

What changes occur to Ca2+ during viagra?

Decreased intRAcellular levels of Ca2+

123

What is BPH?

Benign Prostate hyperplasia
-condition itself is not lethal
"unharmful excess growth"
"benign" = unharmful
"hyperplasia" = excessive growth
BPH is the excess growth of the prostate/prostatic tissue.
It is NOT life threatening
Occludes and decreases the diameter of the urethra
Prostate grows outwards until it reaches its outer capsule
The pressure goes inwards(inward growth of the prostate)
5x Resulting Impacts: 1. Difficulty voiding the urinary bladder (difficulty peeing). 2. Eventually causes the Weakening of the bladder muscles (cannot empty the bladder). 3. Longterm can cause AScending Urinary infections. 4. Long term can cause Bladder problems (cant empty). 5.Pyelonephritis: Kidney problems/infections

124

Is Benign Prostate Hyperplasia BPH life threatening?

"unharmful excess growth"
"benign" = unharmful
"hyperplasia" = excessive growth
-condition itself is not lethal, but things following it such as Pyelonephritis (kidney problems) can make it worse

125

What is cGMP?

Guanosine MonoPhosphate
Good for an erection
A Second messenger,
Required for the smooth muscle relaxation of the corpora cavernosa.
cGMP breaks down/reduces the intracellular levels of Ca2+ calcium for muscle relaxation (increased Ca2+ is bad for an erection)
cGMP itself is broken down by an enzyme called Phosphodiesterase Type 5 in the Vascular structures in the pelvis
Therefore: Decreased Phosphodiesterase Type 5 = Increased cGMP = low Ca2= increased corpora cavernosa smooth muscle relaxation = erection

126

What happens in BPH?

excess growth of prostate tissue places an inward pressure slightly impacting the penile urethra which runs through the middle hole of the donut shaped prostate

127

What are 5x outcomes of BPH?

1. Difficulty voiding the urinary bladder
2. Eventually leads to the Weakening of the bladder Muscles
3. Longterm : can cause AScending urinary infections
4. Longterm: Bladder problems (cant empty)
5. Pyelonephritis: Kidney problems

128

What is the incidence of men requiring BPH treatment in at the age of >85?

90% (very common)

129

What are kidney problems potentially caused by Benign Prostate Hyperplasia called?

Pyelonephritis

130

What is the incidence of men requiring BPH treatment in at the age of

rare

131

How common is the BPH surgical procedure in men?

2nd most common surgical procedure in men is BPH corrective operations
(1st/most common corrective surgery is cataract removal)

132

What is the total cost for BPH treatment per year?

Cost (impacting tax payers and patients) Exceeds $2 billion per year

133

What is the incidence of men requiring BPH treatment in at the age of 70-79?

35% (around a 1/3)

134

What is the incidence of men requiring BPH treatment in at the age of >85?

90% (very common)

135

What does the Selective 5aReductase Inhibitor treatment for BPH involve?

Dutasteride Finasteride
'Dut -a -fine - ass -to -ride"
Stops the Androgen Dependant growth of BPT
they inhibit the enzyme 5 alpha reductase which converts the half as potent androgen
Androgen drive prostate growth = therefore BPH is Growth dependant on Androgens = Androgen Dependant growth
Testosterone into the twice as potent androgen 5 a DHT.
Stop conversion = Decreases stimulus of Prostate grwoth = decreases elevated symptoms of BPT = Reduces overgrowth = causes shrinking
TAKES AWAY POTENCY

136

What are the 2x Selective 5 alpha Reductase inhibitors for BPH treatment?

Dut -a -fine - ass -to -ride
Dutasteride
Finasteride

137

How common is the BPH surgical procedure in men?

2nd most common surgical procedure in men is BPH corrective operations
(1st/most common corrective surgery is cataract removal)

138

What is the total cost for BPH treatment per year?

Cost (impacting tax payers and patients) Exceeds $2 billion per year

139

What are the 3x Treatments for BPH?

1. Selective 5aReducatase inhibitors (Dutasteride and finasteride) Dut -a -fine - ass -to -ride
2. Surgery (prostate hollowed out and urethra is cleared of excess prostate tissue)
3. Others

140

What does the Surgical option of treatment for BPH involve?

Hollowing out of the prostate
Urethra is Cleared of excess prostate tissue

141

What does the Selective 5aReductase Inhibitor treatment for BPH involve?

Dutasteride Finasteride
'Dut -a -fine - ass -to -ride"

142

What are the 2x Selective 5 alpha Reductase inhibitors for BPH treatment?

Dut -a -fine - ass -to -ride
Dutasteride
Finasteride

143

What type of growth is BPT?

Androgen Dependant growth

144

What is the flow on effect of the 2x selective 5 a reductase inhibitor treatement for BPH on the Androgen Dependant growth?

Stops the conversion of half as potent androgen Testosterone into twice as potent androgen 5aDHT = decreased stimulus for prostate growth = decreased the elevated symptoms of BPT = Reduces overgrowth = causing shrinking of prostate
essentially TAKES AWAY POTENCY