Female Reproductive Organs L19 Flashcards Preview

Medsci 142 Test 1 > Female Reproductive Organs L19 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Reproductive Organs L19 Deck (315):
1

What is a follicle?

Egg/oocyte/ovum + its surrounding cells(granulosa cells when mature)

2

What are other words for a female egg?

Oocyte
ovum

3

What is sexual reproduction?

Sexual reproduction is the process by which organisms produce offspring by making germ cells called gametes

4

What is the process by which organisms produce offspring by making germ cells called gametes?

Sexual reproduction

5

What is another name for gametes?

germ cells

6

What is another name for germ cells?

gametes

7

What is fertilisation?

Male and female gametes unite, resulting in a cell which contains one set of chromosomes from each parent

8

What is it called when male and female gametes unite, resulting in a cell which contains one set of chromosomes from each parent?

Fertilisation

9

What are the 3x shared roles of both males and females in reproduction?

1. BOTH males and females are adapted for producing both Gametes and Reproductive hormones
2. BOTH males and females are adapted to facilitate fertilisation
3. BOTH males and female have reproductive organs, but they are anatomically distinct reproductive organs
-appear early in development
-change more dramatically during puberty
-Note ONLY females have an extra role of Sustaining Growth and Maintenance of the Embryo and Fetus
--this influences their reproductive system, and causes a change in pattern of behaviour

10

What is an Additional role in reproduction for Woman only?

Females have an extra role of Sustaining Growth and Maintenance of the Embryo and Fetus
-this influences their reproductive system, and causes a change in pattern of behaviour

11

Who is adapted for producing both Gametes and Reproductive hormones?

BOTH males and females

12

Who is adapted to facilitate fertilisation?

BOTH males and females

13

Who has reproductive organs?

BOTH males and females, but they are ANATOMICALLY distinct
-they appear early in development
-change more dramatically during puberty

14

Who is adapted to sustain growth and maintenance of the embryo and fetus?

ONLY females have this extra role of sustaining growth and maintenance of the embryo and fetus
-this additional role influences their reproductive system, and causes a change in their pattern of behaviour

15

How is ovarian function different to the testes?

Ovaries have cyclical activity
Cyclical ovarian activity occurs from puberty --> menopause

16

What is the activity of the ovary like?

Cyclical
cyclical ovarian activity occurs from puberty --> menopause

17

What has cyclical activity?

The ovary
The Ovary has cyclical activity from puberty --> menopause
-Few oocytes are released
-7 million as a utero
-400 released via ovulation on day 14
-Mature oocyte is released/ovulation(day 14) occurs every 28 days on average
(28 days is the average cyclical length of menstruation)
-NZ fertility rate = 2.1 of all oocytes are fertilised per woman and result in live births (wasteful but males technically are more wasteful)
Oogenesis occurs 6 months prior to gestation in woman (in comparison to spermatogenesis which begins at puberty in males)

18

When does oogenesis occur in woman?

6 months prior to gestation
(-in comparison and NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH Follicular development which occurs from puberty --> menopause, and is the development of the already produced follicle (which was produced 6 months prior to gestation))
-vs spermatogenesis which begins at puberty in males

19

Waht happens 6 months prior to gestation?

oogenesis in woman
(in comparison to spermatogenesis which begins at puberty in males)

20

How many follicles are present in a utero?

7 million

21

When do the most follicles occur in a woman?

In a utero
7 million

22

How many mature oocytes are released in woman?

400 released via ovulation (on day 14)
-Mature oocyte is released/ovulation(day 14) occurs every 28 days on average

23

What is the day of ovulation?

day 14
-Mature oocyte is released/ovulation(day 14) occurs every 28 days on average

24

What is the average duration of menstruation?

every 28 days on average

25

What is the NZ fertility rate?

2.1 of all oocytes are fertilised per woman and result in live births (wasteful but males technically are more wasteful)

26

What is the sagittal view?

see either the RH side and LH side (similar to medial)
-cut right down the middle

27

What are the 4x main physical features of the vagina?

1. Elastic, muscular tube
2. 7.5-9cm long
3. Cervix --> exterior of the body
4. Needs to be Flexible and Adaptable due to being the lower portion of the birth canal and needing to expel the fetus.

28

What sort of tube is the vagina?

Elastic and muscular tube

29

What is an elastic muscular tube, of 7.5-9cm ?

Vagina

30

What is the length of the vagina?

7.5-9cm

31

Where is the vagina located?

cervix --> exterior of the body

32

What is located between the cervix and exterior of the body?

Vagina

33

What are the 3x main functions of the vagina?

1. Passageway for the elimination of menstrual fluids
2.a. Receives the penis during sexual intercourse and b. Hold the spermatozoa, before they pass into the uterus (through the cervix)
3. Birth: the vagina forms the lower region of the birth canal, through which the fetus passes through during delivery. Therefore the vagina AND the cervix, needs to be flexible and adaptable/elastic in order to expel the fetus.

34

Why does the vagina need to be flexible and adaptable?

the vagina AND the cervix
As it forms the lower portion of the birth canal
the Vagina forms the lower portion of the birth canal, therefore its flexibility and adaptability allows the vagina to EXPEL the fetus

35

Where is the passageway of menstrual fluid elimination?

vagina

36

What receives the penis during intercourse?

Vagina

37

What holds the spermatozoa before they pass into the uterus?

Vagina

38

What forms the lower portion of the birth canal?

The vagina

39

Where is one of the last areas which the fetus passes through during delivery?

the vagina (and the cervix)
-the vagina forms the lower region of the birth canal, through which the fetus passes through during delivery. therefore the vagina AND the cervix in needs to be Flexible and Adaptable in order to expel the feutus

40

What is one of the vagina's features due to being the lower portion of the birth canal?

it must be flexible and adaptable in order to be able to expel the fetus

41

What is the relationship between the vagina and menstrual fluid?

Vagina acts as the passageway in the elimination of menstrual fluid

42

What is the relationship between the vagina and penis and sperm?

The vagina receives the penis during sexual intercourse, and it hold spermatozoa before they pass into the uterus (through the cervix)

43

What is the relationship between the vagina and labour?

Vagina forms the lower portion of the birth canal, through which the fetus passes through during delivery/labour
Therefore the vagina AND the cervix needs to be Flexible and Adaptable in order to be able to Expel the fetus

44

What 2x things must be flexible and adaptable/elastic during the delivery and expulsion of the fetus?

Cervix and Vagina

45

What are the 2x key features of the cervix and the vagina in relation to delivery of the fetus?

The vagina AND cervix both must be Flexible and Adaptable/Elastic for the Delivery and Expulsion of the fetus

46

Where does the vagina point?

Superior (upwards) and Posterior(behind/dorsal/back-is the middle hole)

47

Does the vagina point superiorly or inferiorly?

Superiorly (upwards)

48

Does the vagina point anteriorly of posteriorly?

Posteriorly (behind/dorsal/back -is the middle hole)

49

What points superiorly and Posteriorly?

the Vagina

50

What is the Pathway of sperm?

testes --> penis --> vagina (received and held) --> cervix --> uterus --> isthmus --> fallopian tube --> ampulla + egg(site of fertilisation) --

51

What are the 3x components of the Uterus?

1. Fundus
2. Body
3. Cervix (forms the cervical canal)

52

What does the Fundus, body and cervix form?

The Uterus

53

What is the highest part of the uterus called?

The fundus

54

What is the middle region of the uterus called?

Body

55

What is the lower region of the uterus called?

The Cervix (forms the cervical canal)

56

What is the 3x main physical components of the Uterus?

1. Pear shaped
2. weighs 30-40grams
3. Flexible and Elastic - for the delivery/expulsion of the fetus

57

What shape is the uterus?

Pear shaped -30-40grams

58

What is the weight of the uterus?

30-40grams
-pear shaped organ

59

What is the functional physical component of the fetus?

Flexible and Elastic -for the delivery and expulsion of the fetus (alongside the vagina)

60

Why is the uterus Flexible and elastic?

For the delivery and expulsion of the uterus

61

Which organ is pear shaped?

the uterus

62

Which organ weighs 30-40grams?

the uterus

63

What are the main features of the fundus of the uterus?

Dome shaped
Top of the uterus
Fundal height= McDonald's rule
at weeks 16-36 of pregnancy: Fundal height is Able to predict Fetal growth- as some woman can feel it
-Top of uterus Pubic bone
-Number of cm's between Top of uterus/fundus and Pubic bone indicates= Number of weeks of gestation(carrying the embryo)
Increased fundal height = twins, breech birth(upside down baby), gestational diabetes (too much sugar and growing faster)
Decreased fundal height = Inter-uterine growth (small baby for gestational age)

64

What is the shape of a fundus?

dome shaped

65

What is dome shaped?

The fundus (top part of the uterus)

66

What is another name for fundal height?

McDonald's rule

67

What is another name of McDonald's rule?

Fundal height

68

When can McDonald's Rule/Fundal height measurements be used?

Weeks 16-36 of pregnancy

69

What can be used during weeks 16-36 of pregnancy?

McDonald's Rule/Fundal height
-able to predict fetal grwoth

70

What can McDonald's Rule/Fundal height measurements be used for?

Number of cm's between the fundus and the pubic bone - indicates the number of weeks of gestation (weeks of carrying the baby)

71

What measurement indicated the number of weeks of gestation/carrying the baby?

Fundal height/McDonald's rule

72

Where is the measurements of fundal height occurring?

Top of the uterus/fundus Pubic bone

73

What is the measurement from the top of the uterus Pubic bone called?

Fundal height/McDonald's Rule
Indicates the number of weeks of gestation/carrying the baby

74

What will occur if you have twins?

There will be an increase in fundal height (between weeks 16-36) indicating more cms between the fundus and the pubic bone than the number of weeks of gestation

75

What will occur if you have a breech birth?

There will be an increase in fundal height (between weeks 16-36) indicating more cms between the fundus and the pubic bone than the number of weeks of gestation

76

What will occur if you have a gestational diabetes?

There will be an increase in fundal height (between weeks 16-36) indicating more cms between the fundus and the pubic bone than the number of weeks of gestation

77

What 3x things does an increased fundal height indicate?

1. Twins
2. Breech birth (upside down baby)
3. Gestational diabetes (too much sugar and grows to fast)
There will be an increase in fundal height (between weeks 16-36) indicating more cms between the fundus and the pubic bone than the number of weeks of gestation

78

What will occur if you have interuterine growth?

There will be an decrease in fundal height (between weeks 16-36) indicating less cms between the fundus and the pubic bone than the number of weeks of gestation

79

What will a decreased fundal height indicate?

Interuterine growth
-small baby for gestational age

80

What is the orientation of 80% of all uterines?

Antiflexion
-90 degrees to the vagina

81

What is antiflexion?

When the uterus is orientated 90 degrees to the vagina

82

What is it called when the uterus is orientated 90 degrees to the vagina?

Antiflexion

83

What are the main function of the uterus?

1. Pathway for sperm transport
2. Provision of MECHANICAL protection(myometrium), NUTRITIONAL support and WASTE REMOVAL
-all to support the environment of the developing embryo and fetus
3. Myometrium: a thick, muscular outside. Area of contractions (is this myometrium wall). Contractions of myometrium occur in response to Oxytocin, during Labour, and are important in Ejecting/Expelling the fetus, acting as Mechanical protection
4. Perimetrium: ligaments on the OUTERMOST (peri) part of the uterus which are connected to the myometrium
5. Endometrium: innermost part of the uterus (inner functional layer: Stratum functionalis) (outer layer: Stratum Basalis) . Thick. Epithelial region (functional layer). Source of/it is the endometrium which comes out as menstrual flow. Implantation areas during fetal development/pregnancy. Becomes a Huge endocrine organ: with Specialised secretory cells, which provide the best environment for the embryo to live and implant (lots of blood vessels and glands). Covered in Microvilli (no cilia in endometrium-that is fimbriae for suction). Divide into the Inner functional zone a. (Stratum Functionalis) and outer basilar zone b. (Stratum Basalis)
a. Inner functional zone: Stratum functionalis
-contains most of the Uterine glands. therefore Very Secretory. The blood vessels provide the uterus and implanted embryo with nutrients.
-layer which is lost/taken away and expelled during menstruation (1st part of the menstrual cycle)
-after being lost, stratum functionalis is Rebuilt cyclically
b. Outer Basilar zone: Stratum Basalis
-adjacent to the myometrium
-attaches the endometrium and myometrium - between the muscular(contracting/wall) and the functional(replenishing, nutritive, secretory endocrine and menstrual layer) layers

84

What 3x things does the Uterus provide as a means of support in the environment of the developing fetus and embryo?

1. Mechanical support (myometrium)
2. Nutritional environment
3. Waste removal
-all to support the environment of the developing embryo and fetus

85

What are the 4x main components of the myometrium of the uterus?

Contractions
1. Contractions of the myometrium occur in response to oxytocin
2. Contractions occur during labour
3. Contractions help to Eject/expel the fetus
4. Acts as mechanical protection

86

What acts as mechanical protection during reproduction?

The myometrium of the Uterus

87

When does the Uterus's myometrium contract?

During LAbour

88

What does the myometrium of the uterus contract in response to ?

Oxytocin

89

What is the benefit of a contracting myometrium of the uterus?

To eject/expel the fetus

90

What is the ligaments on the outermost part of the uterus?

Perimetrium:
The ligaments on the OUTERMOST (peri) side of the uterus, connected to the myometrium

91

What is connected to myometrium on the outermost side of the uterus?

perimetrium

92

What is the main components of the Endometrium?

1. Thick
2. Epithelial region/Functional layer of the Uterus
3. Inner region
4. The source of menstrual flow/the endometrium who comes out as your period: Inner functional zone: Stratum functionalis, which is rebuilt cyclically(every 28 days on av.) after expulsion
5. Area of implantation in pregnancy/fetal development
6. Becomes a huge endocrine organ: specialised secretory cells, to provide the best environment for the embryo to live (lots of blood vessels and glands) and implant
7. Divided into the Inner functional zone (Stratum functionalis) and the Outer Basilar zone (Stratum Basalis)

93

Is the endometrium a thick of thin layer of the uterus?

Thick, Epithelial functional layer of the tuerus

94

What is the Endometrium of the uterus made out of?

Epithelia
-function layer of the uterus

95

What is the functional layer of the uterus?

Endometrium

96

What is the inner region of the uterus as a whole?

Endometrium

97

What is the source of your menstrual flow?

Endometrium
-it is your endometrium which comes out as your period
Inner functional zone: Stratum functionalis - is rebuilt cyclically(every 28 days on av) after expelsion

98

What is the relationship between the endometrium and menstruation?

The Endometrium is the SOURCE of the menstrual flow-it is the endometrium which comes out as your period ever menstrual cycle/28days

99

What is the area of implantation during pregnancy and fetal development?

The Endometrium of the uterus

100

What is the relationship between the endometrium and implantation?

The endometrium is the area of implantation during pregnancy and fetal development

101

Which part of the uterus becomes a huge endocrine organ and why?

Endometrium of the uterus
Contains specialised secretory cells
To provide the best environment for the embryo to live and implant (lots of blood vessels and glands)
covered in Microvilli (not cilia-that is in the fimbriae for suction)

102

What sort of organ does the endometrium of the uterus become?

Endocrine organ
Contains specialised secretory cells
To provide the best environment for the embryo to live and implant (lots of blood vessels and glands

103

What sort of cells does the endometrium of the uterus contain?

secretory cells

104

Where are their specialised secretory cells in the uterus?

Endometrium of the uterus

105

What is the relationship between the endometrium of the uterus and environment of the embryo?

the Endometrium of the uterus provides the best environment for the embryo to live and implant (lots of blood vessels and glands)
Specialised secretory cells
Becomes a large endocrine organ

106

IS the Endometrium of the uterus covered in cilia?

No
Endometrium contains ONLY MICROVILLI
The is the fimbriea - need cilia for suction to pull up oocyte and cumulus/corona cells

107

Is the Endometrium of the uterus covered in microvilli?

Yes
Endometrium contains ONLY MICROVILLI
The is the fimbriae - need cilia for suction to pull up oocyte and cumulus/corona cells

108

What is the endometrium of the uterus covered in?

Endometrium contains ONLY MICROVILLI
The is the fimbriae - need cilia for suction to pull up oocyte and cumulus/corona cells

109

What are the 2x layers of the Uterus's Endometrium?

Inner functional zone: Stratum functionalis
-contains most of the Uterine glands. therefore Very Secretory. The blood vessels provide the uterus and implanted embryo with nutrients.
-layer which is lost/taken away and expelled during menstruation (1st part of the menstrual cycle)
-after being lost, stratum functionalis is Rebuilt cyclically
Outer Basilar zone: Stratum Basalis
-adjacent to the myometrium
-attaches the endometrium and myometrium - between the muscular(contracting/wall) and the functional(replenishing, nutritive, secretory endocrine and menstrual layer) layers

110

Which part of the endometrium is divided into 2x layers?

Endometrium (inner) uterus
divided into the 2x layers of:
Inner functional zone: Stratum functionalis
Outer Basilar zone: Stratum Basalis

111

Which part of the endometrium of the Uterus contains most of the uterine glands?

Inner most functional layer of the uterus's Endometrium
-Stratum functionalis
-contains most of the uterine glands (therefore Very secretory) the blood vessels provide the Uterus and Implanted embryo with nutrients

112

Which layer of the endometrium contains a lot of secretory cells?

Inner most functional layer of the uterus's Endometrium
-Stratum functionalis
-contains most of the uterine glands (therefore Very secretory) the blood vessels provide the Uterus and Implanted embryo with nutrients

113

What is the role of the mass of glands and blood vessels located in the very secretory inner function layer of the endometrium called the Stratum functionalis?

To provide nutrients to the uterus and the embryo
Inner most functional layer of the uterus's Endometrium
-Stratum functionalis-contains most of the uterine glands (therefore Very secretory) the blood vessels provide the Uterus and Implanted embryo with nutrients

114

Where is the stratum functionalis located specifically in the uterus's endometrium?

Inner functional zone

115

Where is the stratum basalis located specifically in the uterus's endometrium?

Outer Basilar zone

116

Which layer of the uterus is adjacent to the myometrium?

Stratum Basalis in the Outer Basilar zone of the endometrium

117

What attaches the endometrium of the uterus to the myometrium of the uterus?

Stratum Basalis in the Outer Basilar zone of the endometrium

118

What does it mean by the myometrium is the muscular part of the uterus, of which the Stratum Basalis in the Outer Basilar zone of the endometrium connects itself to?

Muscular=contracting/wall of the uterus

119

What does it mean by the endometrium being the functional part of the uterus, of which the Stratum Basalis in the Outer Basilar zone of the endometrium connects itself to?

Functional: replenishing, nutritive, secretory endocrine and menstrual layer of the uterus

120

What does the Stratum Basalis in the Outer Basilar zone of the endometrium provide attachment to?

The Muscular (contracting wall) to the Functional (replenishing, nutritive, secretory endocrine and menstrual layer) of the uterus

121

What is the position of the uterus in 20% of all woman?

Retroflexion uterus
-over 180 degrees from vagina
-reorientated during labour
-not a cause of concern
- cause of pain during menstruation and intercourse

122

What is the positioning of the Retroflexion uterus?

over 180 degrees from the vagina
-is reorientated during labout

123

What happens to the Retroflexion uterus during labour?

The retroflexion uterus (which is over 180 degrees from the vagina) is reorientated back to 90 degrees of the vagina during labour

124

Is a retroflexion uterus of concern?

No
Retroflexion uterus (20% of the population) is NOT a cause of concern
-it only causes pain during menstruation and intercuase

125

What can cause pain during intercourse?

Retroflexion uterus
-over 180 degrees from vagina
-reorientated during labour
-not a cause of concern
-also causes pain during menstruation

126

What can cause pain during menstruation?

Retroflexion uterus
-over 180 degrees from vagina
-reorientated during labour
-not a cause of concern
-also causes pain during intercourse

127

When are the 2x times that the Retroflexion uterus cause pain?

1. During intercourse
2. During menstruation

128

What are the features of an ectopic pregnancy?

An ectopic pregnancy is when the fertilised embryo is implanted into any tissue other than the uterine wall
-more ectopic pregnancies occurring in the uterine TUBE (these are called Tubal pregnancies)
Risk factors (increasing chance of ectopic pregnancies): 1. Smoking (cigarette smoke impairs the cilia's ability (in fimbriae and fallopian tube to move oocyte --> uterus) to beat) 2. Advanced Maternal Age (cilia is less competent) 3.Prior Tubal Damage (STD infections e.g chlamydia)

129

What happens in an ectopic pregnancy?

The fertilised embryo is implanted into any tissue other than the uterine wall
-more ectopic pregnancies occurring in the uterine tube (these are called Tubal pregnancies)

130

What is it called when a fertilised embryo is implanted into any tissue other than the uterine wall?

Ectopic pregnancy

131

What is the most common Ectopic pregnancy?

-more ectopic pregnancies occurring in the uterine tube (these are called Tubal pregnancies)

132

What are ectopic pregnancies in the uterine tube called?

Tubal pregnancies

133

What are the 3x risk factors for Ectopic pregnancies?

1. Smoking (cigarette smoke impairs the cilia's ability (in fimbriae and fallopian tube moving oocyte down to uterus) to beat)
2.Advanced maternal age:
Cilia are less competent
3.

134

How does smoking impact the chance of having an ectopic pregnancy?

Ectopic pregnancies are negative
Increases chance of having an ectopic pregnancy (risk factor)
Smoking's cigarette smoke impairs the cilia's ability (in the fimbriae and fallopian tube moving oocyte down --> to uterus) to beat

135

How does Advanced maternal age impact the chance of having an ectopic pregnancy?

Ectopic pregnancies are negative
Increases the change of having an ectopic pregnancy (risk factor)
Cilia are less competent

136

What impairs the cilia's ability to beat?

Cigarette smoke
Smoking and Ectopic pregnancies:
Ectopic pregnancies are negative
Increases chance of having an ectopic pregnancy (risk factor)
Smoking's cigarette smoke impairs the cilia's ability (in the fimbriae and fallopian tube moving oocyte down --> to uterus) to beat

137

What makes the cilia less competent?

Advanced maternal age
Advanced maternal age and ectopic pregnancies:
Ectopic pregnancies are negative
Increases the change of having an ectopic pregnancy (risk factor)
Cilia are less competent

138

What is an example of prior tubal damage?

STD's
Chlamydia

139

What is the relationship between chlamydia and pregnancy?

Increase change of/Risk factor for Ectopic pregnancy (most common in tubal ectopic pregnancy)
Is PRIOR TUBAL DAMGE
-STD infections (etc. chlamydia)
-uterine wall is less competent/previously damage

140

How does Prior Tubal Damage increase the risk of an ectopic pregnancy?

Increase change of/Risk factor for Ectopic pregnancy
-STD infections (etc. chlamydia)
-uterine wall is less competent/previously damage

141

What are the 5x stages of follicular development?

1. Primordial follicle
2. Primary follicle/Immature (pre-antral follicle)
3. follicular development
4. Secondary follicle (antral follicle)
5. mature Graafian/Pre-ovulatory Follicle

142

What is the difference between oogenesis and follicular development?

Oogenesis is the production of the Follicles and occurs 6 months prior to gestation
Follicular development occurs from puberty --> menopause, and is the development of the already produced follicle (which was produced 6 months prior to gestation)

143

When does Follicular development occur?

from puberty --> menopause
(- in comparison and NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH Oogenesis which is the production of the Follicles and occurs 6 months prior to gestation )

144

What are the main features of the 1st Primordial Follicle?

Oocyte is small
Surrounded by a Single SQUAMOUS layer of flat follicular cells - follicular cells are nursing/helper cells
Quiet and Dormant
Sometimes in groups/eggnests
Millions of Primordial Follicles at birth
Early all the primordial follicles die
Primordial follicles are still the greatest proportion of follicles in young women
2n diploid

145

What is the size of the oocyte in the primordial follicle?

Oocyte is small

146

What does the primordial follicle have surrounding it?

SINGLE layer of SQUAMOUS flat follicular cells

147

What is the activity of the primordial follicle?

Quiet and Dormant

148

Which follicle is quiet and dormant?

Primordial Follicle

149

Which follicle has a single layer of squamous flat follicular cells?

Primordial Follicle
follicular cells- are nursing/helper cells

150

What is the grouping of Primordial follicles sometimes?

Sometimes primordial follicles are in groups/eggnests

151

Which type of follicle is sometimes located in groups/eggnests?

Primordial follicles

152

What is the major follicle at birth?

Primordial follicles
there are millions of primordial follicles at birth

153

What happens to majority of primordial follicles?

The majority of primordial follicles die

154

Which follicle is at the greatest proportion in young woman?

The first Primordial follicle
-is also in the millions at birth

155

What are the main features of the 2nd Primary Follicle?

Immature follicle
Pre-antral Follicle
ONE layer of CUBOIDAL granulosa cells
Larger than premordial
As the follicle grows (becomes bigger and more active) it becomes Primary/or Preantral follicles
Primary follicles become present after puberty
1 oocyte --> 2 oocyte and 1st polar body

156

What is the function of follicular cells?

Located in Primordial follicles
-are Nursing and helper cells

157

What are the other two names for Primary follicle?

Immature Follicle
Preantral follicle

158

What are the two other names for PReantral follicles?

Primary follicle
Immature Follicle

159

What are the other two names for Immature follicle?

Primary follicle
PReantral follicle

160

What are immature/primary/preantral follicles surrounded by?

one layer of CUBOIDAL granulosa cells

161

What is surrounded by one layer of cuboidal granulosa cells?

Primary/Immature/pre-antral follicle

162

What is the immature follicle called as it grows?

Primary follicle
Preantral follicle
grows= bigger and more active

163

When are Primary/Preantral follicles found?

After puberty

164

Are primary follicles found at birth?

No
Primary follicles/immature/preantral follicles are only found after puberty

165

Is the primordial follicle bigger than the primary follicle or the primary follicle bigger than the primordial follicle?

Primary > Primordial
Gets BIGGER as the follicle Develops

166

What occurs during Follicular development?

Increase in Size and shape of the oocyte
Increase in Mitotic activity (more mitotically active)
In-response to FSH: Follicle becomes Larger. More cuboidal/columnar granulose cell layers surrounding the oocyte (1-2)
Secretion of Glycoproteins, which form the Zona Pellucida (a acellular translucent layer, which stains blue, and sperm binds to to allows its entry too the oocyte. Located b/w oocyte and cuboidal granulosa cells. Allows communication. Regulatory by allowing other entry of only 1x sperm, and of only the Same species- as it contains receptors allowing the binging of only one sperm at a time, and proteins which recognise the sperm (more a problem for other species))
Thecal cells begin to form around the follicle (not yet differentiated) (thecal cells are condensed ovarian stromal cells, on the outside of granulosa cells/the growing follicle, which come from the medulla of the ovary during follicular development)

167

What happens to mitotic activity during follicular development as a pre-antral follicle?

Mitotic activity increases as a pre-antral follicle undergoing follicular development

168

When does mitotic activity increase?

During follicular development as a pre-antral follicle

169

What happens to the size of the preantral follicle during follicular development?

During follicular development of the pre-antral follicle's size increases

170

What happens to the preantral follicle in response to FSH during follicular development?

1. preantral follicle grows in size
2. the number of layers of cuboidal/columnar granulosa cells increase (1-2) surrounding the oocyte

171

What does the preantral follicle grow in size and increase it's number of layers of cuboidal/columnar granulosa cells increase (1-2) surrounding the oocyte in response to?

FSH

172

What happens to the pre-antral follicle in relation to glycoproteins?

Preantral follicles in follicular development secrete glycoproteins which form the zona pellucida

173

When is the zona pellucida formed?

During follicular development of the pre-antral follicle
Due to the preantral follicle beginning to secrete glycoproteins (which form the zona pellucida)

174

What are the main features of the zona pellucida?

Formed by the glycoproteins (secreted by the pre-antral follicle during follicular development)
Is located between layer(s) of granulosa cells (firmly attached to the proliferated and speciliased corona radiata granulosa cells) and oocyte
acellular Translucent layer
Allows communication
Stains blue
Regulation: entry of only 1x sperm (receptors which allow only one sperm to bind at a time) and of only the same species (contains proteins which recognise sperm)(more of a problem for other species)

175

Where is the zona pellucida located?

Between the layer(s) of granulosa cells (firmly attached to the proliferated and speciliased corona radiata granulosa cells) and the oocyte

176

What is located between the layer(s) of granulosa cells and oocyte?

Zona pellucida

177

What sort of layer is the zona pellucida?

ACELLULAR (as made out of glycoproteins)
and TRansclucent

178

Is the zona pellucida made out of cells?

NO it is ACELLULAR (as made out of glycoproteins secreted by preantral follicle during follicular development) and is a translucent layer

179

What does the zona pellucida look like?

Translucent layer which is ACELLULAR and made out of the glycoproteins (secreted by preantral follicle during follicular development)

180

What allows communication?

Zona pellucida

181

What does the zona pellucida do in relation to information exchange?

Zona pellucida allows communication

182

What colour does the zona pellucida stain?

blue

183

What has a role in the regulation of entry of only 1x sperm and of only the same species?

The zona pellucida

184

What is the zona pellucida's role of Regulation?

1. Regulates via Allowing only one sperm to enter (and fertilise the egg) (has specific receptors allowing only one sperm to enter at a time)
2. Only the same species sperm allowed to enter (contains proteins which recognise the sperm) (more of a problem for other species)

185

How does the zona pellucida regulate the entry of only one sperm?

1. Regulates via Allowing only one sperm to enter (and fertilise the egg) (has specific receptors allowing only one sperm to enter at a time)

186

How does the zona pellucida regulated the entry of sperm from only the same species?

2. Regulates via allowing Only the same species sperm to enter (contains proteins which recognise the sperm) (more of a problem for other species)

187

When do Thecal cells begin to form around the outside of the follicle(outside of the granulosa cells and oocyte)?

during follicular development of the pre-antral follicle
-thecal cells are condensed stromal cells

188

Are the thecal cells developing into theca externa and interna during the follicular development of the pre-antral follicle?

NO
that occurs later in the secondary/antral follicle

189

What happens to Thecal cells as the pre-antral follicle goes through follicular development?

Occurs during follicular development of preantral follicle
Thecal cells begin to form around the outside of the granulosa cells and oocyte
Thecal cells are condensed Ovarian stromal cells
Thecal cells originate from the medulla of the ovary

190

Where do thecal cells form?

Outside the Granulosa cells and the oocyte
-are condensed stromal cells

191

What are condensed ovarian stromal cells?

Thecal cells

192

Where do thecal cells/condensed ovarian stromal cells originate from?

From the Ovarian medulla
-are condensed ovarian stromal cells -this hints they are from the ovary (spec. the medulla of the ovary)
come down during follicular development of the pre-antral follicle

193

What originates in the ovarian medulla and comes down during the follicular development of the pre-antral follicle?

Thecal cells
-are condensed ovarian stromal cells that come down onto the outside the follicle (outside of the granulosa cells and oocyte) --this hints that they are made from the ovary (ovarian stromal cells condensed) (spec. the medulla of the ovary)

194

What are the main features of the Secondary follicle?

Antral follicle
8x components, Theca Externa + Theca interna + Granulosa cells + antrum + Granulosa cells Cumulus oophorus and Corona Radiata + Zona pellucida + 1 oocyte
the secondary follicle contains a Primary OOCYTE
Granulosa cells proliferate and specialise into a. corona radiata and b. cumulus oophorus
a. Corona Radiata: "radiating crown" Innermost layer of granulosa cells. Firmly attached to the zona pellucida
b. Cumulus Oophorus: "cloud like cells" Cloud cells. Mass of loosely associated granulosa cells. Keeps the embryo safe. Provides the embryo with nutrients.
Specialisation of the granulosa cells helps to support and protect the ovum as it matures and as it is released by ovulation
Proliferation of the granulosa cells produces the viscous follicular fluid which coalesces to form a single antrum (Distinguishing features of a secondary/antral follicle)(antrum= mass of follicular fluid = allows nutrients to flow into the growing oocyte which sits in the middle of the lake
Development of the Theca:
a. Theca Interna: develops to brome the inner, highly vascular (enormous blood system) and highly glandular theca layer, which produces estradiol (androgen (LH) --FSH--> oestrogen (estradiol) in granulosa cells (develops, specialises and co-operates with granulosa cells with the production of reproductive hormones)
b. Theca Externa: develops to be surrounding the fibrous capsule (protection of the growing follicle). Structural and supportive role in keeping the embryo safe.

195

What is another name for a secondary follicle?

Antral follcile

196

What is another name for the antral follicle?

Secondary follicle

197

What are the 8x components of the Secondary/antral follicle?

1. Theca Externa
+ 2. Theca interna
+ 3. Granulosa cells
+ 4. antrum
+ 5. Granulosa cells Cumulus oophorus
+ and 6. Granulosa cells Corona Radiata
+ 7. Zona pellucida
+ 8. Oocyte

198

Where is a primary 1 oocyte contained?

In a secondary follicle

199

What type of oocyte does the secondary follicle contain?

the 2 secondary follicle contains a 1 primary OOCYTE

200

What 2x things happen to the granulosa cells in a secondary follicle?

1. Proliferate
2. Specialise
-specialisation helps to support and protect the ovum as it matures AND as it is released by ovulation

201

Why do granulosa cells in a secondary follicle specialise?

Granulosa cell specialisation helps to support and protect the ovum as it matures AND as it is released by ovulation

202

When are the 2x times that specialised granulosa cells support and protect the ovum?

During Maturation of the ovum and Released of the ovum during ovulation

203

What are the main features of the corona radiata?

a. Corona Radiata:
"radiating crown"
Innermost layer of granulosa cells.
Firmly attached to the zona pellucida

204

What is the innermost layer of granulosa cells called?

Corona radiata (radiating crown)

205

What is the corona radiata firmly attached to in a secondary follicle?

Zona pellucida
-the corona radiata is firmly attached to the zona pellucida specifically in a secondary follicle

206

What is the zona pellucida firmly attached to in the secondary follicle?

Corona radiata
-the corona radiata is firmly attached to the zona pellucida specifically in a secondary follicle

207

What are the main features of the cumulus oophorus?

Cumulus Oophorus:
"cloud like cells"
Cloud cells.
Mass of loosely associated granulosa cells.
Keeps the embryo SAFE and Provides the embryo with NUTRIENTS.

208

Where are the cumulus oophorus cells located?

cloud like cells
Mass of loosely associated granulosa cells

209

What are the mass of loosely associated granulosa cells called?

cumulus oophorus specialised granulosa cells

210

What are the 2x functions of the cumulus oophorus?

1. Keeps the embryo safe
2. Provides the embryo with nutrients

211

What keeps the embryo safe?

Cumulus oophorus
- cloud like cells - mass of loosely associated granulosa cells

212

Does the cumulus oophorus provide the the embryo with nutrients?

YES
the cumulus oophorus provides the embryo with both safety and also provides the embryo with nutrients

213

What is the purpose of the proliferation of granulosa cells?

Proliferation= the granulosa cells start producing follicular fluid
Follicular fluid is viscous
All the follicular fluid coalesces to form a single follicular antrum
(Antrum= mass/pool of follicular fluid coalesced)

214

What is follicular fluid like?

Viscous

215

IS follicular fluid smooth or viscous?

viscous

216

What is an antrum?

Mass/pool of follicular fluid coalesced (produced by proliferated granulosa cells in a secondary/antral follicle)
-allows nutrients to flow into the growing oocyte - which sits in the middle of the lake

217

What is the mass/pool of follicular fluid which has coalesced and has been produced by proliferated granulosa cells?

Antrum
-allows nutrients to flow into the growing oocyte - which sits in the middle of the lake

218

What is the function of the antrum?

Provision of nutrients
Allows nutrients to flow into the the growing oocyte, which sits in the middle of the lake

219

What allows nutrients to flow into the growing oocyte - which sits in the middle of the lake?

Antrum (mass/pool of follicular fluid which has coalesced and was produced by proliferated granulosa cells in a secondary/antral follicle)

220

When does the theca develop/specialise?

During being the secondary/antral follicle

221

What are the main features of the Theca interna?

Development of the Theca interna occurs when it is a secondary/antral follicle
a. Theca Interna: develops to brome the inner, highly vascular (enormous blood system) and highly glandular theca layer, which produces estradiol (androgen (LH) --FSH--> oestrogen (estradiol) in granulosa cells (develops, specialises and co-operates with granulosa cells with the production of reproductive hormones)

222

What are the main features of the Theca externa?

Development of the Theca externa occurs when it is a secondary/antral follicle
b. Theca Externa: develops to be surrounding the fibrous capsule (protection of the growing follicle). Structural and supportive role in keeping the embryo safe.

223

What does the theca externa develop to be?

Surround the fibrous capsule
Structural and supportive role, involved in the protection of the growing follicle and in keeping the embryo safe

224

What sort of role does the theca externa have?

Structural and supportive role
surrounds the fibrous capcule

225

Where is the theca externa located?

Outer
Surrounds the fibrous capsule
-due to its structural, protective and supportive role in keeping the growing embryo safe

226

What surrounds the fibrous capsule of a secondary/antral follicle due to its structural, protective and supportive role in keeping the growing embryo safe?

Theca externa

227

What has a structural and supportive role, involved in the protection of the growing follicle and in keeping the embryo safe?

Theca externa
-surrounds the fibrous capsule in protection

228

What is the role of the externa and internal os?

Externa os = bottom of the cervical canal
Interna os = just above the bulge of the cervix of the urethra
Interna and externa os are constrictions
-Most of the menstrual cycle they are filled with a plug of mucus in the cervical canal, therefore blocking/not allowing any bacteria of sperm to enter into the uterus
-only 3-4 days per month where cervical mucus changes and some sperm are allowed entry

229

Where is the externa os located?

bottom of the cervical canal

230

Where is the interna os located?

just above the bulge of the cervix of the utertha

231

What are both the externa and interna os?

Constrictions in the uterus

232

What are the names of the 2x constrictions in the uterus?

Interna os (located just above the bulge of the cervix of the urethra) and the externa os (located at the bottom of the cervical canal)

233

What are the functions of the interna and externa os?

-Most of the menstrual cycle they are filled with a plug of mucus in the cervical canal, therefore blocking/not allowing any bacteria of sperm to enter into the uterus
Interna os = just above the bulge of the cervix of the urethra
Interna and externa os are constrictions
-only 3-4 days per month where cervical mucus changes and some sperm are allowed entry

234

Are their any changes in the mucous within the constrictions of the interna and externa os?

only 3-4 days per month where cervical mucus changes and some sperm are allowed entry
usually: for most of the menstrual cycle they are filled with a plug of mucus in the cervical canal, therefore blocking/not allowing any bacteria of sperm to enter into the uterus
Interna os = just above the bulge of the cervix of the urethra
Interna and externa os are constrictions

235

What are the physical properties of the theca interna?

The Theca interna is highly glandular and vascular

236

Which part of the theca is highly glandular and highly vascular?

The tTheca Interna

237

What does the Theca INterna produce?

Estradiol (converting androgens --FSH----> estrogen (estradiol) via co-operating with the granulosa cells underneath it to produce reproductive hormones
Estradiol is produced in granulosa cells

238

What do the cells of the theca internal work with in order to produce estradiol from androgens?

Theca INterna works with GRANULOSA cells to produce the estrogen Estrodiol

239

What is the differences between a secondary follicle and a Matura/graffian/pre-ovulatory follicle?

The antrum has grown
-so the oocyte is now suspended in fluid in 3Dimensions
The oocyte is now connected to the rim of peripheral granulosa cells by a thin stalk of cells
As the 2 oocyte inside the antrum GROWS, it is more ready to be expelled, ruptures out of the large gluid filled follicle, and this rupturing occurs when meiosis 1 finishes
Rupturing is slow
take 15-20 mintues to occur
involveds the work of enzymes

240

When is the oocyte suspended in a grown antrum full of follicular fluid?

In a mature, graffian/preovulatory follicle

241

What happens to the positioning of the oocyte inside the matura/graffian/pre-ovulatory follicle?

Surrounded by the follicular fluid of the antrum in 3D
-increased amount of follicular fluid and increased number of granulosa cells
Fully suspended
Stalk of cells connecting the 2 oocyte to the peripheral granulosa cells
As the 2 oocyte inside the follicle grows, it gets ready to be expelled
Expulsion of the oocyte involves rupturing of the follicle
Rupturing finishes in Meiosis 1

242

What does rupturing of the Mature Graffian Pre-ovulatory Follicle involve?

Bursting through the side
Closer to ovulation the follicle increases in size
The oocyte is positioned on the side of the follicle and the oocyte is positioned on the side of the follicle = APPEARS LIKE A BLISTER....... ON THE SIDE!!!
Rupturing involves the work of enzymes and take 15-20 minutes. It is NOT FAST but slow and gradual!

243

What increases in the matura follicle?

Increased amount of follicular fluid in the antrum
Increased number of granulosa cells

244

What is ovulation?

Ovulation is the increase in size of the follicle, and the follicles position in the cortex of the ovarian stroma, causingthe follicle to bulge out of the ovarian surface

245

What is it called when the follicle(mature graffian pre-ovulatory) is increasing in size, and the position of the follicles is at the position of the ovarian cortex of the ovarian stroma, causing the follicle to bulge out from the ovarian surface?

Ovulation

246

What cells is the nearly ovulating mature graffian growing follicle pushing up and bulge out against?

Ovarian Cortex Stromal cells

247

What are ovarian cortex stromal cells?

Stromal cells when condensed become the theca of the 1 primary oocyte

248

What does the discharging of the oocyte out of the follicle and rupturing the ovary involve?

Follicle ruptures -- and becomes the Corpus haemorrhagicum
The oocyte and the surrounding mass of corona radiata and cumulus oopherus cells around the oocyte are carried with the 2 secondary oocyte

249

What is a ruptured follicle called?

Corpus haemorrhagicum

250

What is a corpus haemorrhagicum?

A ruptured follcile

251

What happens to the oocyte once ovulated?

Oocyte is collected by the waiting and constantly beating cilia on the fimbria
Fimbria sweeps the cumulus mass down into the uterine tube

252

What is the name of the empty follicle after ovulation?

corpus luteum

253

What is the corpus luteum?

EMPTY follicle after ovulation

254

What 4x things does the corpus luteum produce?

1. Progesterones (primarily)
2. Estrogens
3. Relaxin
4. Inhibin (LH)

255

By the corpus luteum producing 4x hormones of progesterone, oestrogen, relaxin and inhibin, what type of gland has it become?

Reproductive ENDOCRINE gland

256

What is an example of a reproductive endocrine gland produced after ovulation?

Corpus luteum
produces 4x reproductive hormones:
1. Progesterone (primarily/mainly secreted) (which is essential for pregnancy)
2. Estrogen
3. Relaxin
4. Inhibin (LH)

257

What happens to the components of the previous mature graffian pre-ovultory follicle in the corpus luteum post ovulation?

Antrum breaks down
Between the Granulosa cells and the Thecal cells the BM basement breaks down
Blood vessels invade the corpus luteum
Granulosa cells form into LARGE LUTEIN (yellow) pigmented cells
"corpus luteum" = yellow body

258

What happens to the granulosa cells of the corpus luteum?

the granulosa cells of the corpus luteum become Large Lutein Yellow Pigmented cells

259

What does "yellow body" translate to?

corpus luteum

260

What 2x things break down in the corpus luteum?

1. Antrum breaks down
2. BM basement membrane between the Thecal and Granulosa cells breaks down

261

When do the Antrum and BM (between the thecal and granulose cells) break down?

When they're in the corpus luteum after ovulation

262

What is there a massive invasion of after ovulation in the corpus luteum?

Blood vessels

263

What is the relationship between the corpus luteum and blood vessels?

After ovulation the CORPUS LUTEUM "yellow body" undergoes a Massive invasion of blood vessels

264

What does the process of luteinisation include?

1. Transformation of the follicle into the corpus LUTEum
2. the process associated with the increasing secretion of PROGESTERONE (primarily)
3. Break down of the antrum and the BM Basement Membrane between the Thecal and granulosa cells of the previously mature ovarian Graffian cells

265

What does rupturing result in in the body?

A large wound on the surface of the ovary (haemorhagic)

266

What does the process of a degrading follicle look like?

LArge corpus luteum with a yellow luteum pigment
--->
Slow absorption - still yellow
--->
White when basically reabsorbed

267

What is the colour change like for a corpus luteum to a corpus albicans?

Luteum= yellow
Albican = white =albino
Change is GRADUAL
As the follicle is being slowly absorbed is still yellow-->
When essentially reabsorbed it is White (albicans)

268

What are the main features of the corpus albicans?

After about 14 days/2 weeks the corpus luteum life span is over
Whiteish SCAR tissue remains
The corpus albicans is absorbed back into the stromal tissue of the ovaries- back into the uterine wall

269

What is the corpus albicans phsicallly essentially?

White SCAR TISSUE

270

What is an example of white scar tissue in the ovary?

Corpus ALBICANS is made out of SCAR TISSUE which is WHITE
This is basically the remnants of a corpus luteum after it's lifespan of 14days-2 weeks

271

Where is the corpus albicans reabsorbed into?

the Stromal tissue of the ovaries
-essentiall back into the Uterine wall

272

Waht is resbsorbed back into the stromal tissue of the ovaries?

Corpus albicnas
After the corpus luteum has passed its 14day/2 week life span

273

How long does the resboprtion of the corpus albican into the stromal wall of the ovaries (uterine wall) take?

weeks--> to months

274

What reabsorption in the stromal wall of the ovary/uterine wall takes weeks to months to occur?

Corpus albicans
=represents hte FUTILE cycle

275

What happens in the futile cycle?

Corpus luteum passes its 2 weel/14 day mark
Loses its pigment and become the corpus albicans
Corpus albicans is reabsorbed back into the uterine wall/ovarian stromal cells
This reabsorption take weeks-->months to occur
=FUTIL
-reabsoprtion allows the process to happen all over again

276

What happens if the oocyte is fertilised?

Fertilisation allows Meiosis II to be completed
oocyte begins to divide
Corpus luteum PERSISTS past its 14 days life span/avoids degeneration
due to the secretion of the hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) hormone produced by the chorion of the embryo after 8 days of fertilisation

277

What is hCG rpoduced by?

Chorion of the fertilised and developing embryo after 8days (of its first being fertilised)

278

What does the fertilised embryo in the fertile cycle begin to secrete hCG to prevent the degeneration of the Corpus luteum?

after 8 days of being fertilised

279

What do home pregnancy tests test for?

levels of hCG in maternal BLOOD and URINE
it is an ENZYME test
-as hCG will only be present if the embryo has become Fertilised

280

What 2x liquids can you use to test home pregnancy tests?

human BLOOD
or human URINE

281

What sort of substance or home pregnancy tests testing for?

a HORMONE
-hCG - which is secreted by the chorion of the fertilised and developing embryo - after 8 days of first being fertilised- as hCG saves/rescues the corpus luteum from degeneration (as it dies after its 14day/2 week lifespan)
-allows the endometrium of the uterine wall to persist/survive

282

Waht are the final outcomes of a futile cycle?

No pregnancy
No progesterone
death of the endometrium wall (stratum functionalis) through menstruation
cycle REoccurs

283

What are the final outcomes of a fertile cycle?

Pregnancy
Progesterone levels after 14 days
hCG secreted by the chorion of the fertilised embryo after 9 days
Implantation of the embryo into the uterine walls
Uterine wall is stable

284

What cycle is the uterine wall/endometrium stable?

in the fertile cycle

285

What is special about the endometrium wall in the fertile cycle?

The embryo implants into the uterine wall
And the ENDOmertrium/uterine wall remains survives and remains stable

286

In what cycle is the endometrium expelled through menstruation?

futile cycle

287

What happens to the endometrium in the futile versus fertile cycle?

Futile cycle:
Endometrium unstable/dies and is LOST through MENSTRUATION
Fertile cycle:
Endometrium REMAINS STABLE and the EMRBYO IMPLANTS into the endometrium which continues to stay stable and allows for PREGNANCY :) -stratum functionalis with its vascularity and nutrients is beneficial for the baby
-The blood vessels in the stratum functionalis provide the implanted embryo with lots of nutrients

288

What provides the implanted embryo lots of nutrients?

The endometrium/uterine wall which it is implanted in
The inner stratum functionalis is very vascular/contains a lot of Blood vessels which SUPPLY THE EMBRYO WITH LOTS OF NUTRIENTS! :))) yayay allows for fertile cycle to occur :)

289

What is the average lengths of a menstrual CYCLE?

28 days
-has great variation - can vary for 25-35 days

290

What is the average length of menstruation?

1-5 days
-begins on day 0, lasts for 1-5 dyas

291

What does 28 days represent?

The length of an average menstrual CYCLE

292

What begins at day 0 and continues for another 1-5 days?

The average length of MesntruatION

293

What does ovulation occur?

2 weeks after the beginning of menstruation (on day 0)

294

What occurs 2x weeks after the beginning of menstruation (on day 0)?

Ovulation (day 14)

295

What is the variation of the menstrual CYCLE like?

-average is 28 days
-overall there is GREAT VARIATION
-can vary between 25-35 days in length

296

What can vary for 25-35 days in length?

The duration of the menstrual CYCLE
-has GREAT variaiton

297

What process in reproduction has great variation?

the length of a woman's menstrual CYCLE (av. 28 days but can vary between 25-35 days)

298

What causes the variation of the length of the menstrual cycle?

the influence of the ovarian cycle's FOLLICULAR / PRE-ovulatory phase
-the time period BEFORE ovulation
- changes with age (decreases by a day as you get older)

299

What is the fixed phase in the ovarian cycle?

Luteal phase
-is a set 14 days
-as "luteal" =referring to corpus LUTEUM - and its fixed 14 day lifespan (the duration of the Luteal phase cycle)

300

What is the variable phase in the ovarian cycle?

Follicular phase
"time of the follicle"
is the FIRST phase of reproduction
Day 1 --> ovulation
dependant on FSH
FSH : causes the cells to GROW (quick growth/proliferation)
This growth of the follicles causes the follicles to produce high amount of ESTRADIOL (an oestrogen) by the granulosa cells - which is important soon after menstruation
need of FSH: due to FSH's strong mitogenic properties, allowing for quick proliferation of the endometrium, which has to quickly build/proliferate after being shed in the previous cycle
Ovarian phase is it is "of the ovary"

301

How many days are their between an ovul and menstruation?

14 days

302

What does "follicular phase" mean?

"time of the follicle"

303

What is the hormone (gonadotrophin) behind the follicular phase in the ovarian cycle?

FSH
-due t its strong Mitogenic properties
-allows for the endometrium to be quickly rebuilt/proliferated after previous cycle's shedding
-causes the follicle to grow
-The growing of the follicles causes the Estrogen ESTRADIOL to be produced by the granulosa cells of the GROWING follicle

304

What allows the follicles to produce estradiol in the follicular phase?

The GROWING of the follicles stimulated by the secretion of FSH by the ANTerior pituitary gland (due to GnRH release from the Hypothalamus)
--> it is the VARIABLE length of the phase of follicular growth and development which parallely influences the length f the Preovulatory/Proliferative phase in the menstrual cycle

305

What are the 2x phases of the Ovarian cycle?

1. Follicular phase (variable)
2. Luteal phase (fixed)

306

What are the phases of the Menstrual cycle?

1. Menstrual phase (menstruation) (0-(1-5))
2. Preovulatory phase (proliferation) ((4-5)-14)
3. Ovulation (day 14)
4. Postovulatory phase (secretory phase) (15-27)

307

What type of development occurs during the Mesntrual phase?

mesntruation

308

What type of development occurs during the pre-ovulatory phase?

Proliferation

309

What type of development occurs during the post-ovulatory phase?

Secretary phase

310

What is another name for the secretory phase in the menstrual cycle?

Post-ovulatory phase

311

What is another name for the proliferative phase in the menstrual cycle?

Pre-ovulatory phase

312

What occurs during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?

"time of the corpus luteum"
2nd phase in the ovarian cycle
Ovulation (day14) --> Menstruation (day 0)
affected by the hormone LH secreted by the anterior pituitary (due to GnRH release in the hypothalamus)
The corpus luteum produces large amount of Progesterone(dimorphic sex steroid hormone which is essential for pregnancy)
-the progesterone converts growing epithelia into a very secretory structure, increasing the number of uterine glands which are very secretory
Decrease in the production of oestradiol, but the corpus luteum produces a small amount of estrogens

313

What are the 2x hormones that the corpus luteum secretes during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?

1. LARGE amount of progesterone
2. SMALL amounts of oestrogens

314

What does the progesterone cause to happen during the luteal phase?

Progesterone converts the growing epithelia of the endometrium into a very secretory structure, by increasing its number of uterine glands (which are very secretory)

315

What change occurs during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle/secretory phase the the menstrual cycle?

Progesterone secreted by corpus luteum (luteal phase)
Progesterone makes the growing epithelium increase its number of (secretory) uterine glands which are very secretory (hence it is called the secretory phase)