Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Z OLD Tissues of the Body > Autonomic Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System Deck (137):
1

What is an afferent neurone?

A sensory neurone

2

What does an afferent neurone do?

Carries signals from periphery to CNS

3

What is an efferent neurone?

A motoneurone or autonomic neurone

4

What does an efferent neurone do?

Carries signals from the brain or spinal cord to the periphery

5

What is a ganglion?

A collection of normal cell bodies in peripheral nervous system

6

What is a pre-ganglionic neurone?

One immediately proximal to ganglion

7

What is a post-ganglion neurone?

One that is immediately distal to the ganglion

8

What is an effector?

A target organ through with the nervous system exerts its actions

9

What is the nervous system split into?

#NAME?

10

What is the relationship between PNS and CNS?

Clearly defined, but linked and dependant on one another. They are continuums of the same cell

11

What is the central nervous system split into?

#NAME?

12

What is the CNS characterised by?

Bony encasements

13

What is the brain encased in?

Cranium

14

What encases the spinal cord?

Stacking of vertebral discs

15

What is the CNS suspended in?

Cerebrospinal fluid

16

What is the CNS responsible for?

Sophisticated function of nervous systems

17

What does the PNS consist of?

- Axons of cranial nerves
- Axons of spinal nerves
- Ganglia 
- Nerve plexuses 
- Enteric nervous system

18

How many pairs of ganglia are there the PNS?

- 25 autonomic
- 31 sensory

19

What are nerve plexuses?

Collections/junctions of neurones

20

What are the 3 types of nerve plexuses?

- Brachial 
- Lumbar
- Sacral

21

What is the enteric nervous system related to?

The gut

22

What does the PNS connect?

The CNS to its target organs, or sensory organs to CNS

23

What does the PNS rely on?

The integrity of the CNS

24

How can the CNS and PNS be divided?

Into their direction of signalling

25

What are the two directions of signalling?

#NAME?

26

Where does afferent signalling lead?

To the somatic nervous system

27

Where does efferent signalling lead?

To the autonomic nervous system

28

What can the autonomic nervous system be divided into?

- Sympathetic
- Parasympathetic 
- Enteric

29

What carries the output for the somatic nervous system?

1 neurone

30

Where are the neurones carrying the output of the somatic nervous system located?

Spinally or cranially

31

Where does an efferent neurone terminate?

Directly on effector organ

32

What is the effector organ?

Skeletal muscle

33

What is skeletal muscle activated to do?

Carry out a specific task

34

What is happening when skeletal muscle isn’t carrying out a specific task?

It is inactive

35

What is the exception to skeletal muscle being inactive when not performing function?

Motor tone

36

How is motor tone controlled?

Turned on/off by individual at will

37

When is skeletal muscle inactivated?

During REM

38

What is not inactivated during REM sleep?

Muscles that control the eyes, and involved in respiration

39

Are efferents developed at birth?

No

40

What is the result of efferents being underdeveloped at birth?

We have to acquire motor skills

41

When are efferents fully developed?

By puberty

42

When do efferents start to go downhill?

Age 19+

43

Is the somatic nervous system under voluntary control?

Yes

44

What is the purpose of the autonomic nervous system?

Subserves ‘fundamental’ life functions

45

What fundamental life functions are carried out by the autonomic nervous system?

- Survival of individual 
- Promotion of species 
- Care of offspring

46

What does the autonomic nervous system maintain?

A constant internal environment in the body- homeostasis

47

What does the autonomic nervous system become active along with?

Organogenesis

48

When does the autonomic nervous system function stop?

It functions non-stop throughout life

49

How does the autonomic nervous system control function?

By changing the continuous output in 2 opposing systems

50

What do the predominant actions of the ANS reflect?

An imbalance in the outputs of its two ‘opposing’ systems

51

What can the autonomic nervous be split into?

#NAME?

52

What are the general actions of the ANS?

#NAME?

53

What is meant by the ANS being responsible for consistency?

It establishes and maintains homeostasis of internal environment in the body

54

How does the ANS achieve consistency?

Through regulation of systems in the body

55

What systems does the ANS regulate to ensure consistency?

- Cardiovascular 
- Respiratory 
- Digestive
- Thermoregulative

56

What does the ANS do to enable an intermittent change in bias?

Promotes excretory mechanisms of body as and when necessary and appropriate

57

What are the effector organs of the ANS?

- Visceral organs 
- Smooth muscle 
- Secretory glands 
- Cardiac muscle

58

What are the similarities between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system?

- Common standard anatomical layout 
- Equal numbers of synapses in a series arrangement

59

How to the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems differ?

- In detail of respective anatomy 
- Various synapses use different neurotransmitters

60

What are the differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system the basis of?

General therapies

61

How does the layout of the autonomic nervous system differ from the somatic?

General layout more complex

62

How is the autonomic nervous system laid out?

- Always 2 neurones arranged in series
- 1 cell has cell body in CNS
- 1 cell has cell body in PNS

63

How do the neurones in the ANS exert actions?

Via 3 classes of effector organs

64

What does the layout of the ANS allow for?

A lot of flexibility

65

How does the general layout of autonomic efferents appear?

Very simple

66

What is the general layout of autonomic efferents?

- 2 neurone chains 
- 1 neurone in CNS
- 1 neurone wholly in PNS

67

What is the neurone of autonomic efferents in the CNS called?

Pre-synaptic

68

Does the pre-synaptic neurone of autonomic efferents supply effector organs?

Not directly

69

What is the autonomic efferent neurone wholly in the PNS called?

Post-synpatic

70

What does the post-synaptic neurone of autonomic efferents rely on?

The pre-synaptic neurone to drive it

71

Where does the post-synaptic neurone of autonomic efferents terminate?

Directly on an effector organ

72

Give 4 examples of autonomic effector organs

- Smooth muscle 
- Secretory glands
- Viscera
- Cardiac muscle

73

What are transmitters and receptors of the ANS the essence of?

Therapeutics and it’s side effects

74

What are most organs innervated by?

The ANS

75

What do most organs receive?

Dual innervation of SNS and PNS

76

What can be said of most effects of the PNS and SNS?

They are reciprocal

77

What does autonomic tone vary between?

SNS and PNS dominance

78

What is predominant ANS tone determined by?

The balance of outputs of SNS and PNS

79

What receives only SNS drive?

Sweat glands

80

In what ways can the bladder malfunction?

- Can go into state of retention 
- Can be that nothing can be retained

81

What can cause bladder malfunction?

If the nerves at spinal roots L1-L2 of the sympathetic nervous system, which supply the detrusor blood vessels, or spinal roots S2-S4 of the parasympathetic nervous system are damaged

82

What part of bladder control is voluntary?

The voluntary sphincter

83

What spinal roots are involved with the voluntary bladder sphincter?

S2-S4 (Ventral horn - Onuf’s nucleus)

84

What are the clinical implications of over-activity of the PNS?

#NAME?

85

What can shortage of substrate to the brain lead to?

Fainting

86

What can shortage of substrate to the tissues of the body lead to?

Necrosis

87

What is duality of ANS systems rooted in?

2 independent anatomical profiles

88

What are both divisions of the ANS characterised by?

2 neurones in a chain

89

What is the neurone of the ANS that is located in the CNS known as?

Pre-ganglionic

90

Where is the CNS location of the pre-ganglionic neurone of the ANS?

Either brainstem or spinal cord

91

Are the ANS axons in the CNS myelinated?

Yes

92

What are the ANS axons of the neurones in the CNS known as?

White Rami Communicates (Communicans)

93

What does ANS axonal length in the CNS vary depending on?

ANS divison

94

What is the ANS neurone in the PNS known as?

Post-ganglionic

95

Where is the stomata of the ANS neurone in the PNS located?

Outside the CNS

96

What do the stomata of the ANS neurone in the PNS form?

Swellings known as ganglia

97

Are the ANS axons in the PNS myelinated?

No

98

What are the ANS axons in the PNS known as?

Grey Rami Communicates (Communicans)

99

What is the sympathetic nervous system also known as?

Fight-or-flight system

100

When is the SNS predominantly expressed?

In stressful situations

101

What is the result of SNS activity?

#NAME?

102

Where does the SNS flow out from?

Spinal cord only

103

Where to the SNS nerve fibres have cell bodies?

- All 12 thoracic segments of spinal cord (T1→ T12)
- 1st 2 lumbar segments (L1 and L2)

104

How can complications arise in the SNS?

Following transections of the spinal cord in accidents

105

What do the post-ganglioic neurones of the SNS express?

Nicotinic receptors

106

Of what nature are the post-ganglionic neurones of the SNS?

#NAME?

107

Where are the post ganglionic neurones of the SNS adrenergenic?

Adrenal medulla

108

Of what nature are the pre ganglionic neurones of the SNS?

Cholinergenic

109

What do effector organs express?

A variety of receptors- α and ß receptors

110

What is the efferent system associated with?

The paravertebral chain

111

Where do the majority of efferents of the SNS terminate?

In the paravertebral chain

112

What is the result of most efferents of the SNS terminating in the paravertebral chain?

Short preganglionic fibres

113

What are the 3 possible modes of termination of SNS efferents?

#NAME?

114

What do the nerves that don’t synapse in the paravertebral chain tend to be?

Splanchnic nerves

115

Of what nature are sympathetic postganglionic nerves?

Noradrenergic

116

What is meant by noradrenergic?

They transmit with noradrenaline

117

What are the exceptions to the rule of sympathetic postganglionic fibres being noradrenergic?

#NAME?

118

What are the neurones responsible for sweating called?

Pseudomotor

119

What behaviour do α receptors exhibit?

Either α 1 or α 2 behaviour

120

What are ß receptors divisible into?

ß 1 or ß 2

121

What can α and ß receptors exhibit?

Presynaptic inhibition of each other

122

Where do preganglionic neurones of the SNS have their cell bodies?

In the thoraco-lumbar cord

123

How long are the pre-ganglionic neurones of the SNS?

Relatively short

124

What do pre-gaglionic neurones of the SNS do to transmit impulses?

Secrete acetylcholine as the transmitter

125

How long are the post-gangliotic neurones of the SNS?

Relatively long

126

What do post-ganglionic neurones of the SNS secrete as their neurotransmitter?

Noradrenaline or adrenaline

127

What happens when the parasympathetic nervous system is active?

- Reduces heart rate, and force of contraction of the heart
- Promotes digestion 
- Promotes bodily functions 
- Promotes sleep

128

Where do the parasympathetic messages flow from?

The the brain and spinal cords

129

Give 4 cranial nerves

#NAME?

130

What spinal cord levels are used by the PNS?

S2, S3 and S4

131

What could be said of the pre-ganglionic neurones of the PNS?

They are long and cholinergic

132

What can be said of the post-ganglionic fibres of the PNS?

They are short, express nicotinic receptors and are cholinergic

133

What do effector organs in the PNS express?

Muscarinic receptors

134

What does the layout of autonomic efferents in the PNS allow?

Flexibility by design

135

How does the layout of autonomic efferents in the PNS allow flexibility?

#NAME?

136

What are nicotinic receptors stimulated by?

Nicotine

137

What are muscarinic receptors blocked by?

Atropine