Internal Surfaces of the Body Flashcards Preview

Z OLD Tissues of the Body > Internal Surfaces of the Body > Flashcards

Flashcards in Internal Surfaces of the Body Deck (120):
1

What kind of places do mucous membranes line?

Certain internal tubes which open to the exterior

2

Give 3 places where mucous membranes line

#NAME?

3

What do mucusoe bear to a varying degree?

Mucus-secreting cells

4

What do mucous membranes consist of?

- Epithelium 
- Adjacent later of connective tissue

5

What do mucus membranes in the alimentary tract have?

A third layer consisting of smooth muscle

6

What kind of epithelium is present in mucous membranes?

Depends on site

7

What does the epithelium of the mucous membrane line?

The lumen of the tube

8

What is the layer of connective tissue in mucus membranes often referred to?

Lamina propria

9

What is the layer of smooth muscle isn the alimentary tract called?

Muscularis mucosae

10

Are serous membranes thick or thin?

Thin

11

How many parts do serous membranes consist of?

2

12

What kind of places do serous membranes line?

Closed body cavities (spaces that don’t open to the exterior)

13

What do serous membranes envelope?

The viscera

14

What do serous membranes secrete?

Lubricating fluid

15

What is the purpose of the serous membranes secretions?

Promotes relatively friction free movement of the structures they surround

16

What do serous membranes consist of?

#NAME?

17

What does the mesothelium in serous membranes do?

Secrete watery lubricating fluid

18

What is the purpose of the connective tissue in serous membranes?

#NAME?

19

What happens, regarding the serous membrane, during embryological development?

The heart, lungs and gut develop next to a bag-like cavity in which they invaginate

20

What is the result of the invagination of the heart, lungs and gut?

They are surrounded by serous membrane. They don’t lie within a serous cavity, they are surrounded by it

21

What is the pericardial sac?

Membrane that surrounds the heart

22

Describe the structure of the pericardial sac

#NAME?

23

What is the purpose of the pericardial sac?

Allows the heart to beat

24

Does everything in the abdomen have serosa around it?

No

25

Give two examples of something in the abdomen without serosa around it

- Kidneys 
- Bladder

26

What organs are intraperitonial?

#NAME?

27

What is the gut mesentery?

A thin strand of peritoneum going out, wrapping around and folding back in again, that leads to the ileum

28

What does the alimentary canal consist of?

- Oesophagus 
- Stomach
- Small intestine (duodenum, jejenum and ileum)
- Colon
- Rectum

29

What feeds into the alimentary canal?

Accessory glands- 
- Salivary glands
- Liver
- Gall bladder
- Pancreas

30

What are the 4 layers of the gut wall?

- Mucosa (innermost)
- Submucosa
- External muscle layer 
- Serosa

31

What is the submucosa made up of?

Connective tissue

32

What is the external muscle layer of the gut wall known as?

Muscularis externae

33

When is the serosa present in the gut wall?

If an intraperitoneal portion of the gut

34

What does the mucosa of the gut wall line?

The lumen

35

What does the mucosa of the gut wall consist of?

- Muscularis mucosae
- Lamina propria 
- Epithelium

36

What epithelium does most of the gut have?

Simple columnar

37

What is often present in the lamina propria?

Peyer’s patches

38

What are Peyer’s patches?

Aggregations of lymphocytes

39

Where in the lamina propria are Peyer’s patches found?

Near the lumen

40

Why are Peyer’s patches found near the lumen/

Because it’s where bacterial attack occurs

41

What do Peyer’s patches do?

Produce igA’s to combat bateria and their toxins

42

What happens as you get further down to gut, towards the colon?

There are more aggregations of lymphocytes

43

What is the purpose of mucosal glands in the lamina propria?

They feed mucus into the gut

44

What is present in the submucosa?

Glands, arteries and nerves

45

What is the purpose of the arteries in the submucosa?

They keep the tissue alive

46

What do the glands in the submucosa produce?

Secretory products that then go into the gut lumen

47

Why is the submucosa often quite a loose tissue?

Because it allows it to change shape as muscles squeeze

48

What does the muscularis externa consist of?

Two layers of smooth muscle-
- Outer longitudinal layer
- Inner circular layer

49

What shape do both layers of muscle in the muscularis externa form?

Spirals
- Inner one very tight
- Outer one very relaxed

50

What is produced in the muscularis externa?

Successive peristaltic waves

51

What is the purpose of the successive peristaltic waves in the muscularis externa?

Moves luminal contents along the cut

52

What kind of membrane is the serosa around the outermost layer of the gut wall?

Serous

53

What does the mesentery contain?

- Arteries
- Veins
- Nerves 
- Lymphatic vessels

54

Are cells normally contiguous in connective tissue?

No

55

What does connective tissue product a lot of?

Extra cellular material

56

What is the most fundamental fibre producing cell?

A fibroblast

57

What does connective tissue contain a lot of?

Immune system cells

58

What does the oesophagus consist of?

#NAME?

59

What kind of epithelium is present in the oesophagus?

Stratified squamous non-keratinized

60

What is the purpose of the epithelium in the oesophagus?

Withstand abrasion

61

Is the lamina propria in the oesophagus tight or loose?

Loose

62

What does the lamina propria in the oesophagus contain?

- Blood vessels
- Lymph vessels 
- Some smooth muscle cells
- Many cells of the immune system

63

What is the muscularis mucosae of the oesophagus?

A thin layer of smooth muscle cells

64

What does the submucosa of the oesophagus contain?

Mucus secreting glands

65

What is the importance of the muscularis externae in the oesophagus?

It moves food by peristalsis

66

What is the adventita of the oesophagus?

A thin, outermost layer of connective tissue

67

Does the oesophagus have peritoneal enfolding?

No

68

What happens to the oesophagus when it’s not containing something?

The lumen is convoluted

69

What does the stomach consist of?

#NAME?

70

What does the gastric mucosa do?

Secretes acid, digestive enzymes, and the hormone gastrin

71

How many layers of smooth muscle are there in the muscularis externa of the stomach?

3

72

What are the 3 layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis externa of the stomach?

#NAME?

73

What are rugae?

Folds of gastic mucosa, forming longitudinal ridges in the empty stomach

74

What are the ridges of the rugae a feature of?

The submucosa being flexible

75

What is the function of the jejunum?

Does most of the absorbance of nutrients

76

What does the jejunum consist of?

- Jejunal mucosa
- Submucosa
- Muscularis externa 
- Plicae ciculares

77

What does the jejunal mucosa consist of?

- Simple columnar epithelium
- Lamina propria 
- Muscularis mucosae

78

What are plicae circulares?

Circular folds of mucosa and submucosa that project into the gut lumen

79

What does the large intestine contain?

- Numerous crypts of Lieberkühn 
- Peyer’s patches

80

What are crypts of Lieberkühn?

Tubular glands with lots of simple goblet cells in each

81

What epithelium is found in the crypts of Lieberkühn?

Simple columnar

82

What do the crypts provide?

- Lots of mucus 
- Cells to the surface

83

What do the surface epithelial cells absorb?

Water and electrolytes

84

What is the conducting portion of the respiratory tract?

The nasal cavity →  bronchioles

85

What is the purpose of the conducting portion of the respiratory tract?

To get air down to respiratory portion

86

What is the respiratory portion of the tract?

Respiratory bronchioles →  alveoli

87

What is the purpose of the respiratory portion?

Where gas exchange happens

88

What is the purpose of the tracheal wall?

To hold the trachea open

89

What kind of epithelium is found in the tracheal wall?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

90

What does the fibroelastic membrane of the tracheal wall contain?

The trachealis muscle

91

What does the wall of the trachea have lots of?

Mucus glands

92

How are the walls of the trachea connected to the mucus glands?

Ducts

93

What to primary bronchi have?

Complete rings of cartilage

94

What happens to the rings of cartilage as the bronchi get smaller?

They become crescents

95

What epithelium do bronchi have?

Pseudostratified ciliated

96

Do bronchioles have cartilage?

No

97

Why don’t bronchioles need cartilage?

The surrounding alveoli keep the lumen open

98

What epithelium is in the bronchioles?

Simple columnar →  cuboidal as it gets narrower

99

What are the types of cells in the alveoli?

- Type I 
- Type II

100

What epithelium is found in type I alveoli cells?

Squamous

101

How much of the alveolar surface area do type I cells cover?

90%

102

What is the purpose of the type I alveolar cells?

Permit gas exchange with the capillaries

103

What epithelium is found in the type II alveolar cells?

Cuboidal

104

What is the purpose of the type II alveolar cells?

Produce surfactant so alveoli stay open

105

What lines the alveolar surface?

Numerous macrophages

106

What is the purpose of the macrophages at the alveolar surface?

Phagocytose particles

107

What does gas exchange occur over?

Blood-air barrier

108

What must gas pass through to get from the alveolus to the blood?

2 squamous cells

109

What 2 squamous cells must gas pass through to get from the alveoli to the blood?

#NAME?

110

What are the capillaries surrounded by?

A ‘basketwork’ of capillaries and elastic fibres

111

What does the urinary tract consist of?

- Kidneys
- Ureter
- Bladder 
- Urethra

112

What is the function of the kidneys?

Main job is to filter blood, to get rid of toxins and put them into urine

113

What must the bladder be able to do?

Distend

114

What does the ureter consist of?

- Transitional epithelium
- Fibroelastic lamina propria 
- Circular muscularis externia

115

What happens to the stellate urethral lumen as urine passes through?

It becomes ovoid

116

What does the bladder wall consist of?

- Epithelium 
- Smooth muscle in lamina propria 
- 3 interwoven layers of muscularis externae

117

What epithelium does the bladder wall have?

Transitional

118

How is the impermeability to urine of the bladder wall conferred?

By the thick plasma membrane and tight intercellular junctions

119

How does the bladder wall appear when relaxed?

Folded

120

What is the job of the bladder wall?

To protect underlying tissues from toxins and stretching