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Z OLD Tissues of the Body > Viruses > Flashcards

Flashcards in Viruses Deck (85):
1

How big are viruses?

Submicroscopic- 18-350nm

2

What is required to see viruses?

An electron microscope

3

What is meant by viruses being obligate intracellular parasites?

They can’t independently replicate

4

Why are viruses obligate intracellular parasites?

- They have no genes that encode proteins that function as metabolic machinery for energy generation 
- Can’t obtain molecules form which energy can be yielded 
- Have no genes that encode proteins that function as metabolic machinery for protein synthesis 
- May or may not contain genes that encode for enzymes involved in nucleic acid synthesis 
- May or may not have proteins processing nucleic acid

5

What is the significance of some viruses having proteins processing nucleic acids?

They can be used as targets for antiviral drugs

6

What is the genetic material in viruses?

DNA or RNA, not both

7

Which of the types of viruses, DNA or RNA, are more stable?

DNA

8

Why are DNA viruses more stable?

RNA is less genetically stable

9

What is the result of RNA being less genetically stable?

RNA viruses mutate faster than DNA viruses

10

Do viruses have small ions or polysaccharides?

No

11

Do viruses contain lipids?

Enveloped viruses do, naked viruses do not

12

What is the significance of naked viruses?

They are harder to destroy by heat or disinfectant

13

Give 4 viral shapes

- Adenovirus 
- Papillomavirus 
- Parvovirus 
- Morbillovirus

14

Why are viral shapes important?

Because we can design drugs that directly fit the virus

15

Describe the growth curve of bacteria

Logarithmic, steady, exponential

16

Explain the growth curve of viruses

Low levels until the cell bursts, releasing a huge number of viruses

17

What are more difficult to control, bacterial or viral infections?

Viral

18

Why are viral infections more difficult to control than bacterial?

Because virus numbers are 3 orders of magnitude bigger

19

What is the genetic information for a virus?

Nucleic acid of RNA or DNA

20

Describe the genetic information for viruses

#NAME?

21

What does segmented genetic information allow?

Reassortment, so can get lots of different strains

22

What can be if there is SS RNA?

Can be of plus or minus sense

23

What can happen if there is +RNA?

Genomic RNA can serve as mRNA, and so be directly translated into protein

24

Can genomic RNA serve as mRNA if it is of a - sense?

No

25

How is specific diagnosis of most viral infections achieved?

Molecular detection of their genomes

26

What is a long term survival strategy for viruses?

Converting RNA to DNA

27

What does the conversion of RNA to DNA require?

Reverse transcriptase

28

What is a virion?

A viral particle

29

Essentially, what is the envelope in an enveloped particle?

The host cytoplasmic membrane

30

What do all viruses have?

A nucleocapsid

31

What is the nucleocapsid?

A protein coat the encloses and protects the genomic material

32

How many protein types are in the nucleocapsid?

1, 2 or 3

33

What is true of the proteins that made up the nucleocapsid?

They are complementary units, and so stick together naturally

34

What are individual sub-units of nucleocapsids called?

Capsomeres

35

What is a nucleocapsid without a genome?

A capsid

36

What are the functions of the capsid?

- Protects delicate inner nucleic acid from harsh environmental conditions 
- May be involved in attachment to host cells

37

What are the two basic capsid structures?

- Icosahedral 
- Helical

38

What can capsomers be used to make?

- Vaccines 
- Antibodies to make diagnosis of viral infection

39

What proteins to viruses encode for?

Ones that can naturally insert into host cell membrane

40

What do the viral proteins inserted into the cell membrane allow?

The viral capsid to recognise part of the host membrane, which can then bud out to produce enveloped viruses

41

What are the most numerous biological entities on the planet?

Bacteriophage T4-complex virus

42

What are bacteriophage T4-complex viruses involved in?

Transfer of drug resistance

43

How are bacteriophage T4-complex viruses involved in drug resistance?

They carry some of the proteins that enable bacteria to carry infection

44

How do the viruses that infect human cells compare to those that infect bacteria?

Relatively similar

45

What are the requirements for viral infection and replication in the host cells?

- Cell must contain the receptor the virus binds to in the process of initiating infection 
- In order for virus to successfully replicate in host cells, the host cell must have cellular machinery the virus needs for replication

46

Why can viruses only target specific cells/species?

Because the surface of the virus must come into contact with receptor in host cell, but the receptor might not be on all host cells

47

What is the part of the virus that binds to the receptor called?

The ligand

48

Where is the ligand found?

#NAME?

49

Is there a one ligand-one receptor relationship?

No

50

What is the result of the possibility for multiple receptors for one ligand?

Complexities of some things that they cause

51

What is the host range of a virus?

The spectrum of host cells that the virus can successfully infect and replicate in

52

What is said if a virus successfully replicates in a host cell?

The infection is productive, and the host cell is permissive for virus

53

What can sometimes happen when a cell produces viral particles?

The particles cannot infect new cells, which is an immunological advantage

54

What is the most commonly used scheme for viral classification?

Baltimore scheme

55

What is the Baltimore scheme based on?

Relationship between viral genome and the mRNA used for translation during expression of viral genome

56

What do we use as the main classification in medical virology?

The nucleic acid type and envelope

57

What are generally more susceptible to disinfection?

Enveloped viruses

58

What are effects of a virus on the host cell?

Cytopathic effects, and cell death

59

When does a virus usually cause cell death?

On release of the virus

60

What are cytopathic effects?

Visible effects on the host cells caused by viral replication

61

Give 4 cytopathic effects

- Inclusion bodies
- Syncytia formation 
- Chromosomal damage
- Inhibition of host cell protein, RNA or DNA synthesis

62

Where do inclusion bodies occur?

At the site of active virus synthesis

63

Give an example of an inclusion body

Negri bodies in the rabies virus

64

What are synctias?

Giant, multinucleated cells formed by the fusion of plasma membranes

65

What causes chromosomal damage?

Viral nucleic acid can get into nucleus and integrate into host DNA

66

What do many enveloped viruses produce regarding cytopathic effects?

No direct light microscope observable effects

67

What does the development of cancer from viruses require?

That the virus integrates all of part of its genome into the host cell DNA

68

What kind of viruses can cause cancer?

Only RNA viruses that are retroviruses

69

How do RNA retroviruses cause cancer?

They bring in or turn on cellular oncogenes that cause cells to proliferate uncontrollably

70

Can DNA viruses cause cancer?

Yes, but usually do so in a non-permissive cell

71

What is meant by a non-permissive cell with regards to viral cancer?

A cell that lacks something required for viral growth

72

How do DNA viruses usually cause cancer?

By inactivating tumour suppressor proteins that normally cat to keep the cell from going through the cell cycle, therefore the cell starts going through the cell cycle and proliferating

73

What is a lot of what happens in infectious disease due to?

Overreaction of the immune system

74

What are a lot of infectious disease treatments aimed at?

To stop the overreaction of the immune system

75

What happens in people who are immunocompromised?

- They don’t have the same symptoms as a normal person, so the diagnostic criteria must be changed 
- Will die much quicker because pathogen not being suppressed by immune system

76

What happens in Ebola?

The virus both reduces the effective immune response, and enhances unproductive inflammation

77

What do the complex interactions that occur in Ebola lead to?

Coagulation failure and the haemohagic picture

78

What is the specific immune response to a disease often used as?

An alternative method of diagnosis to genome production

79

What are the possible states of a virus?

- Acute 
- Subacute 
- Chronic 
- Latent

80

Where can viruses be obtained from?

#NAME?

81

What are the direct contact routes for viral infection?

- Sexual contact
- Vertical transmission
- Environmental routes 
- Respiratory 
- Gastrointestinal 
- Transcutaneous

82

What are viral infections characterised by?

Incubation period in which virus replication that eventually leads to damage/dysfunction that is symptomatic

83

Where can a virus spread to?

#NAME?

84

How do many viruses spread?

Via multiple pathways

85

How can viruses be detected?

- Genome directed nucleic acid amplification (NAA)
- Culturing in cell cultures
- Identification of virus particles or antigens in tissue specimens 
- Detecting specific virus-directed immune response