Autonomic Nervous System Physiology Flashcards Preview

CVPR Unit 1 > Autonomic Nervous System Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System Physiology Deck (26):
1

Number of Synapses for ANS vs Somatic?

ANS- DiSynaptic
Somatic- Monosynaptic

2

Inputs of ANS

Nucleus of the solitary tract (in medulla): conveys visceral sensory input
Other brainstem nuclei: convey environmental stimuli
Hypothalamus (in forebrain): conveys internal goals/states

3

ANS Subdivisions

Sympathetic: Four F's- Fight, Flight, Fright and Sex
Parasympathetic: Rest and Digest
Enteric: Not covered now

4

Sympathetic Division Spinal Roots

T1 - L2

5

Parasympathetic Division Spinal Roots

Cranial Nerves VII, IX and X. Also S2 - S4.

6

Ratio of Pre- to Post-Ganglionic Neurons (Sym and Para)

Sympathetic- 1:10
Parasympathetic- 1:3

7

Ganglia Location

Sympathetic: Near spinal cord
Parasympathetic: Near target organ

8

Preganglionic Neurotransmitters (Sym and Para)

Acetylcholine (Ach) for BOTH!

9

Postganglionic Neurotransmitters (Sym and Para)

Sympathetic: Norepinephrine (NE) and Epinephrine
Parasympathetic: Acetylcholine

10

Ach Receptors

Nicotinic vs Muscarinic

11

NE Receptors

Alpha- and Beta-adrenergic

12

Methods of CV Regulation via Nervous system

Sym and Para control of heart rate and blood pressure
Baroreceptor reflex
Humoral Response (via bloodstream)

13

Sympathetic Stimulation causes? (via NE)

Increased HR, BP and inotropy. (contraction of blood vessels)

14

Parasympathetic Stimulation causes? (via Ach)

Decreases HR, BP, and inotropy.

15

Sympathomimetic Definition and Example

Mimic sympathetic activation.
Atropine: muscarinic (M2) antagonist in heart; increases heart rate.

16

Parasympathomimetic Definition and Example

Mimic parasympathetic activation.
Propranolol: β-adrenergic (β1 and β2) antagonist in heart; decreases heart rate

17

Hypothalamus regulates release of hormones via the....?

Posterior Pituitary

18

Low BP detected by...?

Subfornical organ. Not behind the BBB.

19

Vasopressin actions

Also known as ADH (anti-diuretic hormone). Causes vasoconstriction and acts on kidneys to increase water retention.

20

Renin function

Converts Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I. Released from kidneys in response to low BP.

21

ACE Definition and Function of end product.

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme. Converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II (the active form).
- Constricts blood vessels
- Acts on kidney to increase water retention
- Activates neurons in subfornical organ

22

Adrenal medulla Innervation and Function

Innervated by preganglionic sympathetic neurons
Releases norepinephrine and epinephrine into bloodstream
Widespread sympathomimetic effects (e.g., increased heart rate)

23

Epinephrine is Synthesized from?

Norepinephrine

24

Norepinephrine is synthesized from?

Dopamine. Tyrosine -> L-dopa -> Dopamine -> Norepinephrine

25

Baroreceptor Reflex Functions

Low BP -> Increase Sympathetic Output
High BP -> Increase Parasympathetic Output

26

Hypothalamus Coordinates?

ANS and humoral responses