Heart Failure I - Pathophysiology Flashcards Preview

CVPR Unit 1 > Heart Failure I - Pathophysiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Heart Failure I - Pathophysiology Deck (23):
1

T or F: HF is largely a disease of the Aged

True, median age is 75

2

General definition of HF

The inability of the heart pump to pump blood forward at a sufficient rate to meet the metabolic demand of the body (forward failure), or the ability to do so only if the cardiac filling pressures are abnormally high (backward failure)

3

Key requirement component of HF

Poor forward blood flow (decreased CO)

4

T or F: Backward buildup of pressure is almost always present as well

Ture, results in congestion (increased filling pressure)

5

What relationship states that the more the LV is filled, the more it will contract

Frank-Starling's law

6

Increased Preload for the same inotropic states results in what?

Increased SV (this, increased CO)

7

What are the determinant agents of inotropy?

-Catecholaminergic/adrenergic
-Calcium

8

T or F: Inotropy produces increased SV for the same level of preload

Ture

9

What are the major types of HF

-Systolic and Diastolic
-Left sided vs. Right sided

10

What are the hallmarks of systolic HF?

-Decreased ejection fraction (HFeEF, LVSD)
-Ventricular enlargement (Dilated Cardiomyopathy)
-A problem with the squeeze

11

What measures are decreased in systolic HF?

Loss of inotropy= low SV and lower generated systolic BP

12

List Primary causes of systolic HF

-Direct destruction of heart muscle cells (MI)
-Overstressed heart muscle
-Volume overloaded heart muscle

13

What are the hallmarks of Diastolic HF?

-Normal ejection fraction (HFpEF)
-Ventricular wall thickening (LVH)
-Impaired filling

14

What measures are different in diastolic HF?

lower SV

15

Primary causes of diastolic HF?

-High afterload/pressure overload
-Myocardial thickening/fibrosis
-External compression

16

Normal systemic vs pulmonary bp

-Systemic: 120/80 mmHg
-Pulmonary: 22/10 mmHg

17

T or F: R ventricle does less work

True

18

Consequences of R Sided HF

-Decreased circulating blood flow (forward RV HF)
-increased venous pressures (Backwards RV HF)

19

Primary causes of R sided HF

-L HF
-Lung disease/pulmonary HTN/RV pressure overload (car pulmonale when primary lung disease causes HF)
-RV volume overload
-Damage to the RV myocardium

20

T or F: HF forms clinically coexist

True, systolic dysfunction is typically accompanied by diastolic dysfunction and vice verse

21

What is the underlying problem with HF?

reduced CO

22

List the compensatory responses to HF

-neurohumoral activation
-Frank-Starling (increased preload)
-Ventricular hypertrophy and dilation

23

What 2 regulation systems are activated by HF?

-Adrenergic activation
-Renin-angiotensin system