Autonomic Neuropharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Autonomic Neuropharmacology Deck (28):
1

Where are the largest number of noradrenergic neurons located?

locus cereleus

2

Increased activity in the locus cereleus may have what effect?

Increase in anxiety by releasing NE in the amygdala and other limbic areas

3

What happens when NE binds to a noradrenergic receptor in the pons?

Coupled to G protein and produces intracellular signaling:
Alpha1= Gq
Alpha2= Gi
Beta= Gs

4

What is the role of NE in the brain?

regulates arousal, attention, vigalence, memory and modulates pain signals

5

What is the role of Ach in the brain?

influences motivation, learning and memory

6

What area of the brain supplies the thalamus and brainstem with Ach?

brainstem arousal center

7

What area of the brain supplies the cerebral cortex with Ach?

Forebrain arousal center

8

What is the commonality between the actions of Ach and NE?

they are both involved in the regulation of arousal and cognition

9

What receptors do antipsychotics block in the ANS?

Muscarinic cholinergic receptors
Alpha-2 adrenoceptors

10

What receptors do antipsychotics block in the CNS?

DA receptor
Muscarinic cholinergic receptors

11

What receptors do antipsychotics block in the endocrine system?

DA receptor

12

What is the result of the blockade of DA receptors in the endocrine system?

hyperprolactinemia

13

How might antispychotics cause weight gain?

combined blockage of H1 and 5-HT receptors

14

What are the consequences of a peripheral blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors?

-Loss of accommodation (blurred vision)
-Precipitation of narrow-angle glaucoma
-Dry mouth
-Difficulty urinating/constipation
-Orthostatic hypotension
-Sinus tachycardia
-Impotence (ejaculation failure)

15

What are the consequences of a central blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors?

Memory and cognitive impairment
Delirium (if severe)

16

What is the main MOA of antidepressants?

block synaptic reuptake of NE, serotonin, and DA

17

What are the side effects of blocking the reuptake of NE?

anxiety
increased pressor effects
diaphoresis
tachycardia
tremor

18

What are the side effects of blocking alpha-1 receptors?

-Postural hypotension and dizziness
-Potentiation of antihypertensive effects of other medications
-Reflex tachycardia

19

Other than L-DOPA, what drug class can be used to treat Parkinsonism?

Anticholinergics (block muscarinic cholinergically-mediated excitation of the GABAergic neruons that are stimulating the indirect pathway)

20

What 3 anticholinergics are used in PD?

Benztropine
Diphenhydramine
Trihexyphenidyl

21

What are the 3 clinical characteristics of PTSD?

-Intrusion
-Avoidance
-Hyperarousal

22

Stimulation of what type of receptors in the amygdala enhances memories for stimuli encoded under strong negative emotion?

beta-adrenergic receptors

23

What are the only approved drugs for the treatment of PTSD?

SSRIs (paroxetine and sertraline)

24

What drug shows promise to decrease the "intrusion" that occurs with PTSD?

Propranolol (non-specific beta blocker)

25

What drug shows promise to decrease the "hyperarousal" that occurs with PTSD?

Prazosin (alpha-1 blocker)

26

Which type of drug can led to bad dreams if it gains access to the CNS?

non-specific beta blockers

27

What drug class has both histamine and cholinergic blocking activities?

1st generation H1 antagonists (lipophillic)

28

What type of muscarinic antagonists do NOT have access to the CNS?

quaternary