Flashcards in Brainstem Structure Function Deck (65):
R-C location of: Oculomotor Nuclear Complex
Midbrain (at level of superior colliculus)
R-C location of: Edinger-Westphal Nucleus
Midbrain (posterior to ONC)
R-C location of: Trochlear nucleus
Midbrain (at level of inferior colliculus)
R-C location of: Mesencephalic Nucleus of V
Midbrain (extending up from pons to rostral midbrain)
R-C location of: Motor nucleus of V
R-C location of: Chief sensory nucleus of V
R-C location of: Spinal Nucleus of V
R-C location of: Abducens nucleus
pons (close to midline)
R-C location of: Facial nucleus
pons (caudal and lateral)
R-C location of: Superior salivatory nucleus
pons (posterior to facial nucleus)
R-C location of: Inferior Salivatory Nucleus
medulla (rostral/near postero-midline)
R-C location of: Vestibular and Cochlear ganglia
R-C location of: Nucleus Solitarius
medulla (rostral and posterior)
R-C location of: Inferior spinal vestibular nuclei
medulla (lateral to dorsal motor nucleus of X)
R-C location of: Dorsal motor nucleus of X
medulla (posterior portion of rostral)
R-C location of: Spinal trigeminal nucleus
medulla (rostral, postero-lateral)
R-C location of: Nucleus Ambiguus
medulla (rostral, medial)
R-C location of: Hypoglossal Nucleus
Medulla (medial to dorsal motor nucleus of X)
Which cranial nerves do not have their cell nuclei in the brainstem?
I (CNS tract)
II (CNS tract)
XI (in spinal cord C1-C5/C6)
What "system" of vessels supplies the brainstem?
What vessel and its branches supplies the medulla?
Vertebral Arteries (2 Posterior Spinals, Anterior Spinal, PICAs)
What vessel supplies the posterior 1/3 of each spinal cord?
Posterior Spinal Artery
What vessel supplies the anterior 2/3 of each spinal cord?
Anterior spinal artery
What does the PICA supply?
Posterior/inferior surface of cerebellar hemispheres
What vessels supply the pons?
Superior cerebellar Arteries
What part of the cerebellum does the SCA supply?
Superior surface and cerebellar peduncle
What artery supplies the entire midbrain?
posteiror cerebral artery
What does the AICAs serve?
-Anterior/inferior surface of cerebellar hemispheres
-Middle cerebellar peduncles
Functions in control of reflex movements that orient the eyes, head, and neck in response to visual, auditory, and somatic stimuli
Functions in the processing of autonomic and limbic activities, as well as modulation of nociception
passageway connecting the 3rd and 4th ventricles
houses the parasympathetic innervation of the eye to constrict the iris and to the ciliary muscle to alter lens shape for accomodaiton
Nucleus of Edinger-Westphal
motor control of the eye muscles
CN III Nuclei
fiber pathway to thalamus for pain/temperature from the periphery
sensory pathway for proprioception connecting the nucleus gracilis and cuneatus with the thalamus
thalamic relay nuclei for auditory information
thalamic relay nuclei for visual information
fiber bundles of the corticospinal tract connecting the cerebral cortex to the brainstem
optic fibers from the optic chiasm to the lateral geniculate
one of several nuclei involved in smooth muscle motor control—degenerates in Parkinson’s disease
Relay nuclei between the cerebellum to the thalamus
fiber pathway to and from the cerebellum
superior cerebellar peduncle
fiber pathway to and from the cerebellum
middle cerebellar peduncle
Three nuclear components (Mesencephalic, Main Sensory Nucleus, and Motor Nucleus)
Nuclei of V
collection of neurons in the pons that receive input from the neocortex and send crossing fibers through the middle cerebellar peduncle
Noradrenergic brainstem nucleus involved in mood and sleep/wake cycle
One of several serotonin type nuclei involved in mood and sleep/wake cycle
Raphe nucleus pontis
motor fibers from neocortex to spinal interneurons and lower motor neurons
Nuclei of the vestibular system that regulate balance
Interior and Medial Vestibular Nuclei
Sensory nucleus for taste (from CN VII), glands, and chemo/baroreceptors (CN IX, X)
Nucleus and tractus solitarius
parasympathetic motor nucleus to the lungs and gut
Dorsal motor nucleus of X
nuclear and tract components of the trigeminal nerve that extends down into the upper cervical spinal cord
Spinal nucleus and tract of CN V
Origin of the climbing fibers to the cerebellar Purkinje cells
Inferior olivary nucleus
Name given to the corticospinal tract fibers in the medulla
network of neurons and axons that reside in the brainstem tegmentum and are involved in arousal, respiration, and heart rate control
glossopharyngeal nucleus with motor control over tongue and pharyngeal muscles with taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue
Nucleus of CN IX
Fiber pathway between the vestibular nuclei and the CN nuclei III, IV, VI tocoordinate head/eye movements
Medial longitudinal fasciculus
Where is the location of a lesion that would lead to ipsilateral 3rd nerve paresis and contralateral hemiparesis, tremor and ataxia?
Base and tegmentum of the midbrain
What phenomenon might lead to a lesion that would lead to ipsilateral 3rd nerve paresis (CN III palsy- eye down and out), ipsilateral pupil dilation, and contralateral hemiparesis, tremor, ataxia and loss of fine touch?
Benedikt's syndrome (occlusion of tip of basilar or branches of the PCA)
-CN III harmed in palsy
-E-W nucleus harmed to prevent constricton of pupil
-Red nucleus harm lead to the tremor
-Medial Lemniscus leads to loss of epicritic senstion)
Where is the location of a lesion that causes contralateral hemiparesis, ipsilateral facial paresis, and ipsilateral gaze paresis?
Base and tegmentum of medial pons
What phenomenon might lead to a lesion that causes contralateral hemiparesis, ipsilateral facial paresis, and ipsilateral gaze paresis?
Foville's syndrome (occlusion of paramedian branches of basilar artery)
What structures are involved in a lesion that causes contralateral hemiparesis, ipsilateral facial paresis, and ipsilateral gaze paresis?
CN VII (controls muscles of facial expression)
CN VI (controls lateral rectus for ipsilateral gaze)
Where is the location of a lesion that leads to ipsilateral ataxia, vertigo, and nausea, ipsilateral decrease in face pain sensation, contralateral decrease in body pain sensation, and ipsilateral Horner's syndrome?
(note there is no body weakness, so medial medulla is preserved but you do have loss of pain sensation which is through the spinothalamic tract--which is lateral)
Where is the location of a lesion that leads to contralateral arm/leg weakness, contralateral decrease in position/vibration and ipslateral tongue weakness?