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Flashcards in Brainstem Structure Function Deck (65):
1

R-C location of: Oculomotor Nuclear Complex

Midbrain (at level of superior colliculus)

2

R-C location of: Edinger-Westphal Nucleus

Midbrain (posterior to ONC)

3

R-C location of: Trochlear nucleus

Midbrain (at level of inferior colliculus)

4

R-C location of: Mesencephalic Nucleus of V

Midbrain (extending up from pons to rostral midbrain)

5

R-C location of: Motor nucleus of V

pons

6

R-C location of: Chief sensory nucleus of V

pons

7

R-C location of: Spinal Nucleus of V

caudal medulla

8

R-C location of: Abducens nucleus

pons (close to midline)

9

R-C location of: Facial nucleus

pons (caudal and lateral)

10

R-C location of: Superior salivatory nucleus

pons (posterior to facial nucleus)

11

R-C location of: Inferior Salivatory Nucleus

medulla (rostral/near postero-midline)

12

R-C location of: Vestibular and Cochlear ganglia

pons/rostral medulla

13

R-C location of: Nucleus Solitarius

medulla (rostral and posterior)

14

R-C location of: Inferior spinal vestibular nuclei

medulla (lateral to dorsal motor nucleus of X)

15

R-C location of: Dorsal motor nucleus of X

medulla (posterior portion of rostral)

16

R-C location of: Spinal trigeminal nucleus

medulla (rostral, postero-lateral)

17

R-C location of: Nucleus Ambiguus

medulla (rostral, medial)

18

R-C location of: Hypoglossal Nucleus

Medulla (medial to dorsal motor nucleus of X)

19

Which cranial nerves do not have their cell nuclei in the brainstem?

I (CNS tract)
II (CNS tract)
XI (in spinal cord C1-C5/C6)

20

What "system" of vessels supplies the brainstem?

Vertebral-Basilar System

21

What vessel and its branches supplies the medulla?

Vertebral Arteries (2 Posterior Spinals, Anterior Spinal, PICAs)

22

What vessel supplies the posterior 1/3 of each spinal cord?

Posterior Spinal Artery

23

What vessel supplies the anterior 2/3 of each spinal cord?

Anterior spinal artery

24

What does the PICA supply?

Posterior/inferior surface of cerebellar hemispheres

25

What vessels supply the pons?

Basilar (major)
Superior cerebellar Arteries

26

What part of the cerebellum does the SCA supply?

Superior surface and cerebellar peduncle

27

What artery supplies the entire midbrain?

posteiror cerebral artery

28

What does the AICAs serve?

-Anterior/inferior surface of cerebellar hemispheres
-Middle cerebellar peduncles

29

Functions in control of reflex movements that orient the eyes, head, and neck in response to visual, auditory, and somatic stimuli

Superior colliculus

30

Functions in the processing of autonomic and limbic activities, as well as modulation of nociception

PAG

31

passageway connecting the 3rd and 4th ventricles

Aqueduct

32

houses the parasympathetic innervation of the eye to constrict the iris and to the ciliary muscle to alter lens shape for accomodaiton

Nucleus of Edinger-Westphal

33

motor control of the eye muscles

CN III Nuclei

34

fiber pathway to thalamus for pain/temperature from the periphery

Spinaothalamic tract

35

sensory pathway for proprioception connecting the nucleus gracilis and cuneatus with the thalamus

Medial Leminiscus

36

thalamic relay nuclei for auditory information

Medial geniculate

37

thalamic relay nuclei for visual information

Lateral geniculate

38

fiber bundles of the corticospinal tract connecting the cerebral cortex to the brainstem

Cerebral peduncle

39

optic fibers from the optic chiasm to the lateral geniculate

Optic tract

40

one of several nuclei involved in smooth muscle motor control—degenerates in Parkinson’s disease

substantia nigra

41

Relay nuclei between the cerebellum to the thalamus

red nucleus

42

fiber pathway to and from the cerebellum

superior cerebellar peduncle

43

fiber pathway to and from the cerebellum

middle cerebellar peduncle

44

Three nuclear components (Mesencephalic, Main Sensory Nucleus, and Motor Nucleus)

Nuclei of V

45

collection of neurons in the pons that receive input from the neocortex and send crossing fibers through the middle cerebellar peduncle

Pontine Nuclei

46

Noradrenergic brainstem nucleus involved in mood and sleep/wake cycle

Locus Coeruleus

47

One of several serotonin type nuclei involved in mood and sleep/wake cycle

Raphe nucleus pontis

48

motor fibers from neocortex to spinal interneurons and lower motor neurons

Corticospinal Tract

49

Nuclei of the vestibular system that regulate balance

Interior and Medial Vestibular Nuclei

50

Sensory nucleus for taste (from CN VII), glands, and chemo/baroreceptors (CN IX, X)

Nucleus and tractus solitarius

51

parasympathetic motor nucleus to the lungs and gut

Dorsal motor nucleus of X

52

nuclear and tract components of the trigeminal nerve that extends down into the upper cervical spinal cord

Spinal nucleus and tract of CN V

53

Origin of the climbing fibers to the cerebellar Purkinje cells

Inferior olivary nucleus

54

Name given to the corticospinal tract fibers in the medulla

Pyramid

55

network of neurons and axons that reside in the brainstem tegmentum and are involved in arousal, respiration, and heart rate control

Reticular formation

56

glossopharyngeal nucleus with motor control over tongue and pharyngeal muscles with taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue

Nucleus of CN IX

57

Fiber pathway between the vestibular nuclei and the CN nuclei III, IV, VI tocoordinate head/eye movements

Medial longitudinal fasciculus

58

Where is the location of a lesion that would lead to ipsilateral 3rd nerve paresis and contralateral hemiparesis, tremor and ataxia?

Base and tegmentum of the midbrain

59

What phenomenon might lead to a lesion that would lead to ipsilateral 3rd nerve paresis (CN III palsy- eye down and out), ipsilateral pupil dilation, and contralateral hemiparesis, tremor, ataxia and loss of fine touch?

Benedikt's syndrome (occlusion of tip of basilar or branches of the PCA)
-CN III harmed in palsy
-E-W nucleus harmed to prevent constricton of pupil
-Red nucleus harm lead to the tremor
-Medial Lemniscus leads to loss of epicritic senstion)

60

Where is the location of a lesion that causes contralateral hemiparesis, ipsilateral facial paresis, and ipsilateral gaze paresis?

Base and tegmentum of medial pons

61

What phenomenon might lead to a lesion that causes contralateral hemiparesis, ipsilateral facial paresis, and ipsilateral gaze paresis?

Foville's syndrome (occlusion of paramedian branches of basilar artery)

62

What structures are involved in a lesion that causes contralateral hemiparesis, ipsilateral facial paresis, and ipsilateral gaze paresis?

Corticospinal tract
CN VII (controls muscles of facial expression)
CN VI (controls lateral rectus for ipsilateral gaze)

63

Where is the location of a lesion that leads to ipsilateral ataxia, vertigo, and nausea, ipsilateral decrease in face pain sensation, contralateral decrease in body pain sensation, and ipsilateral Horner's syndrome?

LATERAL medulla

(note there is no body weakness, so medial medulla is preserved but you do have loss of pain sensation which is through the spinothalamic tract--which is lateral)

64

Where is the location of a lesion that leads to contralateral arm/leg weakness, contralateral decrease in position/vibration and ipslateral tongue weakness?

MEDIAL medulla

65

What phenomenon might lead to a lesion that leads to ipsilateral ataxia, vertigo, and nausea, ipsilateral decrease in face pain sensation, contralateral decrease in body pain sensation, and ipsilateral Horner's syndrome?

Wallenberg's syndrome (occlusion of PICAs or vertebral arteries)