Flashcards in Autonomic pharmacology Deck (32)
What is the main neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system?
What are the main neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system?
What structure is responsible for protecting the CNS from toxins, chemicals, etc.?
The blood-brain barrier
Which division of the nervous system is characterized by ganglia that are located in close proximity to the target organ?
Which division of the nervous system is characterized by ganglia located near the spinal cord?
Name the receptor type and neurotransmitter type involved at the preganglionic synapses of all autonomic nerve ganglia.
Ach - nicotinic
Somatic motor synapses use ______ receptors and ______ neurotransmitters.
What neurotransmitter is released from post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate with cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands?
What neurotransmitter is released from post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate with skeletal muscle, blood vessels, and sweat glands? Which receptor is involved?
Ach. Muscarinic receptor (muscarinic receptor is always the Ach receptor involved in the post-ganglionic synapse)
What neurotransmitter is released from post-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons that innervate with cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands? Which receptor is involved?
Ach. Muscarinic receptor
Parasympathetic stimulation results in pupil and bronchial _________.
The adrenal glands are considered part of the ________ nervous system because _____________.
sympathetic because they release epi and norepi
Sympathetic stimulation ________ urination while parasympathetic stimulation ________ urination.
Myasthenia gravis is often treated by _______ inhibitors. Name one more treatment method.
Also treated with immune suppressors.
How do you determine is a patient with Myasthenia gravis is having a flaccid vs. spastic paralytic event?
Bradycardia and hypersalivation indicates spastic paralysis due to too much Ach. Can also be tested with short-acting Achesterase inhibitor like edrophonium, which will help only the patient in myasthenic crisis (flaccid paralysis).
Which amino acid is the precursor for dopa?
What does monoamine oxidase do?
Degrades monoamine-containing neurotransmitters like epi and norepi and dopamine (as well as serotonin even though it is not a SNS neurotransmitter) after reuptake into the presynaptic neuron.
What results from detrusor muscle relaxation? Which branch of the autonomic nervous system stimulates its relaxation?
Detrusor muscle relaxation happens for urine retention (along with sphincter contraction). Sympathetic branch does it.
The first synapse of both the PNS and SNS that release acetylcholine use what type of receptor?
What important class of drugs are Ach agonists/cholinesterase antagonists?
What type of paralysis does snake venom cause? What about clostridium botulinum?
Depends on the snake. C. Botulinum causes flaccid paralysis.
What causes Myasthenia gravis?
Auto Abs that bind to nicotinic Ach receptors on skeletal muscle, causing receptor endocytosis and degradation.
What type of paralysis is a "Myasthenic crisis?"
What is edrophonium?
An anticholinesterase used to determine type of paralysis of a myasthenia gravis patient
What is the ingredient in most insecticides? What about nerve gas?
Organophosphates (irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors) - nerve gas is the same
How is nerve gas/insecticide exposure treated? Name a specific drug.
Treated with anticholinergic drugs such as atropine, plus an additional med to help restore cholinesterase activity.
Name the four neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system.
Dopamine, epi, norepi, acetylcholine
What is the pathway for epinephrine synthesis?
Tyrosine --> Dopa --> Dopamine --> Norepi --> Epi
What is 5-HT?