How do GABA agonists work?
They allow influx of Cl- into the cell to hyperpolarize the cell.
What is one prominent side effect of volatile general anesthetics?
Should you give nitrous oxide to a patient with a pneumothorax?
No way man
What is the definition of general anesthetic?
Reversible loss of consciousness
What is the anesthetic triad?
hypnosis, analgesia, muscle relaxation
If a patient moves in response to a painful stimulus while under general anesthesia, does it mean the patient is awake?
How do most general anesthetics work?
They are GABA agonists. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that hyperpolarizes the cell with Cl- ions.
What is one prominent general anesthetic that is not a GABA agonist but instead is an alpha-2 agonist?
How is CNS activity monitored in the OR?
Bispectral index (BIS) 100 = awake and alert 60 = moderate hypnosis for surgery etc.
What is erexon?
I don’t know. Some general anesthetics block it.
General anesthetic potency is proportional to _______.
What measurement allows for comparison of potency amongst general anesthetics?
MAC - alveolar concentration at which 50% of patients respond to superficial stimulus
Are general anesthetics metabolized? How are they cleared?
Not metabolized, exhaled out
Name four cardiovascular effects of general anesthesia.
- Myocardial depression
- Impaired baroreceptor reflexes
- Vasodilation due to decreased sympathetic tone
- Increased dysrhythmias
What do general anesthetics do to the respiratory system?
Bronchodilation, decreased response to hypoxia, decreased response to increased C02, low tidal volume, and higher respiratory rate that diminishes alveolar ventilation.
Which general anesthetic is more commonly used in pediatric anesthesia? Why?
Sevoflurane because it is not noxious to inhale while awake and they can make it smell like bubble gum and stuff.
What do narcotics do to CO2 responsiveness?
They blunt it