General anesthetics Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Pt. 2 > General anesthetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in General anesthetics Deck (17)
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1
Q

How do GABA agonists work?

A

They allow influx of Cl- into the cell to hyperpolarize the cell.

2
Q

What is one prominent side effect of volatile general anesthetics?

A

Myocardial depression

3
Q

Should you give nitrous oxide to a patient with a pneumothorax?

A

No way man

4
Q

What is the definition of general anesthetic?

A

Reversible loss of consciousness

5
Q

What is the anesthetic triad?

A

hypnosis, analgesia, muscle relaxation

6
Q

If a patient moves in response to a painful stimulus while under general anesthesia, does it mean the patient is awake?

A

no

7
Q

How do most general anesthetics work?

A

They are GABA agonists. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that hyperpolarizes the cell with Cl- ions.

8
Q

What is one prominent general anesthetic that is not a GABA agonist but instead is an alpha-2 agonist?

A

Dexmedetomidine

9
Q

How is CNS activity monitored in the OR?

A
Bispectral index (BIS)
100 = awake and alert
60 = moderate hypnosis for surgery
etc.
10
Q

What is erexon?

A

I don’t know. Some general anesthetics block it.

11
Q

General anesthetic potency is proportional to _______.

A

lipid solubility.

12
Q

What measurement allows for comparison of potency amongst general anesthetics?

A

MAC - alveolar concentration at which 50% of patients respond to superficial stimulus

13
Q

Are general anesthetics metabolized? How are they cleared?

A

Not metabolized, exhaled out

14
Q

Name four cardiovascular effects of general anesthesia.

A
  1. Myocardial depression
  2. Impaired baroreceptor reflexes
  3. Vasodilation due to decreased sympathetic tone
  4. Increased dysrhythmias
15
Q

What do general anesthetics do to the respiratory system?

A

Bronchodilation, decreased response to hypoxia, decreased response to increased C02, low tidal volume, and higher respiratory rate that diminishes alveolar ventilation.

16
Q

Which general anesthetic is more commonly used in pediatric anesthesia? Why?

A

Sevoflurane because it is not noxious to inhale while awake and they can make it smell like bubble gum and stuff.

17
Q

What do narcotics do to CO2 responsiveness?

A

They blunt it