B1 - Understanding Ourselves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B1 - Understanding Ourselves Deck (47):
1

What is health?

Means being free of any infectious diseases.

2

What is being fit?

This is a measure of how well you can perform physical tasks.

3

What four things increase blood pressure?

-Smoking
-Overweight
-Alcohol
-Stress

4

What can low blood pressure cause?

-Strokes
-Brain damage
-Lifestyle changes

5

How can smoking increase blood pressure?

Carbon monoxide - combines with haemoglobin reducing amount of oxygen.

Nicotine - increase heart rate increasing blood pressure.

6

How can a poor diet (saturated fats) lead to heart disease?

High levels of cholesterol are in the blood because of saturated fats. Plaque builds up narrowing arteries, which reduces amount of oxygen.

7

Name the 5 nutrients and what they do.

Carbohydrates (provides energy)
Fats (energy store)
Proteins (growth and repair of tissue)
Vitamins and Minerals (prevent scurvy and make healthy blood)
Water (prevent dehydration)

8

What is the equation for Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)?

EAR(g) = 0.6 x body mass(kg)

9

What is the equation of Body Mass Index (BMI)?

BMI = body mass / height(2)

10

What are infectious diseases caused by?

Pathogens

11

In three steps how does your immune system deal with pathogens?

1)Consumes them
2)Produces antitoxins
3)Produces antibodies

12

How do vaccinations stop you getting infectious diseases?

A small dead part of the disease is but in to your body and as antibodies are produced to kill these memory cells are made so if it comes back they are killed much faster

13

What is a benign tumour?

A non cancerous tumour which doesn't spread

14

What is a malignant tumour?

This is a cancerous tumour which can spread

15

What are the four processes of a drug being tested on humans?

1)Clinical trial
2)Placebo
3)Compare drugs
4)Double blind trial

16

What are the five types of drugs?

1)Depressants
2)Stimulants
3)Painkillers
4)Performance enhancers
5)Hallucinogens

17

What are the drug classes and examples?

Class A (heroin, cocaine)

Class B (cannabis)

Class C (anabolic steroids)

18

Give three illnesses caused by smoking

1)Carbon monoxide reduces the capacity of oxygen in blood
2)Tar collects in the lungs causing cancer
3)Cilia is damaged which produces much more mucus causing a smokers cough

19

When people are long sighted what does that mean?

They can't focus on near objects because the image is being focused behind the retina

20

When people are short sighted what does it mean?

This means they can't focus on distant objects as the image is focused before the retina

21

What lens would you need for being long sighted?

Convex ()

22

What lens would you need for being short sighted?

Concave )(

23

What are the seven stages to the nervous system?

1)Stimulus
2)Receptor
3)Sensory neurone
4)CNS
5)Motor neurone
6)Effector
7)Response

24

How do electrical impulses cross over a synapse?

Chemicals are released which diffuse across the gap

25

What is homeostasis?

This is maintaining a constant internal environment

26

What happens when you are too hot?

-Sweat
-Hairs lie flat
-Blood vessels widen

27

What happens when you are too cold?

-Shiver
-Hairs stand up
-Very little sweat produced

28

What happens if your glucose level is too high?

Insulin is added

29

What happens if your glucose level is too low?

Insulin is not added

30

What is type 1 diabetes?

Your pancreas creates too little insulin

31

What is type 2 diabetes?

Person becomes resistant to insulin

32

What is the growth hormone in plants?

Auxin

33

Why does auxin make a plant move towards light?

It moves away from the light meaning that side grows more making it bend

34

What experiments can be used to show auxin works?

Put different materials on the tip of the plant to show that it will not move unless clear

35

What are some of the uses of plant hormones?

-Weed killers
-Increasing growth
-Controlling ripening

36

How many pairs of chromosomes does a human body cell nucleus have?

23

37

What are alleles?

They are different versions of the same gene

38

What is a gene?

A short length of a chromosome

39

What are the three sources of genetic variation?

-Gamete formation (making sperm and egg cells)
-Fertilisation (joining sperm and egg cells together)
-Mutations (change in the genetic code)

40

What is a recessive gene shown by?

Small letter

41

What is a dominant gene shown by?

Capital letter

42

What is BB (two dominant alleles)?

Homozygous

43

What is Bb (recessive and dominant allele)?

Hetrozygous

44

What allele overrules what?

Dominant overrules ressesive

45

What is a genotype?

Alleles you have for a particular gene

46

What is a phenotype?

What alleles produce

47

What do chromosomes control?

If you are male of female