Flashcards in B1 - Understanding Ourselves Deck (47):
What is health?
Means being free of any infectious diseases.
What is being fit?
This is a measure of how well you can perform physical tasks.
What four things increase blood pressure?
What can low blood pressure cause?
How can smoking increase blood pressure?
Carbon monoxide - combines with haemoglobin reducing amount of oxygen.
Nicotine - increase heart rate increasing blood pressure.
How can a poor diet (saturated fats) lead to heart disease?
High levels of cholesterol are in the blood because of saturated fats. Plaque builds up narrowing arteries, which reduces amount of oxygen.
Name the 5 nutrients and what they do.
Carbohydrates (provides energy)
Fats (energy store)
Proteins (growth and repair of tissue)
Vitamins and Minerals (prevent scurvy and make healthy blood)
Water (prevent dehydration)
What is the equation for Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)?
EAR(g) = 0.6 x body mass(kg)
What is the equation of Body Mass Index (BMI)?
BMI = body mass / height(2)
What are infectious diseases caused by?
In three steps how does your immune system deal with pathogens?
How do vaccinations stop you getting infectious diseases?
A small dead part of the disease is but in to your body and as antibodies are produced to kill these memory cells are made so if it comes back they are killed much faster
What is a benign tumour?
A non cancerous tumour which doesn't spread
What is a malignant tumour?
This is a cancerous tumour which can spread
What are the four processes of a drug being tested on humans?
4)Double blind trial
What are the five types of drugs?
What are the drug classes and examples?
Class A (heroin, cocaine)
Class B (cannabis)
Class C (anabolic steroids)
Give three illnesses caused by smoking
1)Carbon monoxide reduces the capacity of oxygen in blood
2)Tar collects in the lungs causing cancer
3)Cilia is damaged which produces much more mucus causing a smokers cough
When people are long sighted what does that mean?
They can't focus on near objects because the image is being focused behind the retina
When people are short sighted what does it mean?
This means they can't focus on distant objects as the image is focused before the retina
What lens would you need for being long sighted?
What lens would you need for being short sighted?
What are the seven stages to the nervous system?
How do electrical impulses cross over a synapse?
Chemicals are released which diffuse across the gap
What is homeostasis?
This is maintaining a constant internal environment
What happens when you are too hot?
-Hairs lie flat
-Blood vessels widen
What happens when you are too cold?
-Hairs stand up
-Very little sweat produced
What happens if your glucose level is too high?
Insulin is added
What happens if your glucose level is too low?
Insulin is not added
What is type 1 diabetes?
Your pancreas creates too little insulin
What is type 2 diabetes?
Person becomes resistant to insulin
What is the growth hormone in plants?
Why does auxin make a plant move towards light?
It moves away from the light meaning that side grows more making it bend
What experiments can be used to show auxin works?
Put different materials on the tip of the plant to show that it will not move unless clear
What are some of the uses of plant hormones?
How many pairs of chromosomes does a human body cell nucleus have?
What are alleles?
They are different versions of the same gene
What is a gene?
A short length of a chromosome
What are the three sources of genetic variation?
-Gamete formation (making sperm and egg cells)
-Fertilisation (joining sperm and egg cells together)
-Mutations (change in the genetic code)
What is a recessive gene shown by?
What is a dominant gene shown by?
What is BB (two dominant alleles)?
What is Bb (recessive and dominant allele)?
What allele overrules what?
Dominant overrules ressesive
What is a genotype?
Alleles you have for a particular gene
What is a phenotype?
What alleles produce